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Azurocidin/HBP Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Cationic Antimicrobial Protein 37 kDa, CAP37, Heparin-Binding Protein, HBP
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD191481200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Serum, Urine, Plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin)

Sample Requirements

Serum and Plasma: 5 µl/well
Urine: 10 µl/well

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2 8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

0.625 – 20 ng/ml

Limit of Detection

0.06 ng/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 4.3 %

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 6; CV = 6.8 %

Spiking Recovery

105.4 %

Dilutation Linearity

99.3 %

Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 3.5 hours
  • The kit measures azurocidin in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin) and urine.
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Standard is native protein based
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Sepsis

Summary

Azurocidin, also known as cationic antimicrobial protein 37 kDa (CAP37) or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inactive homolog of serine proteinases residing in granulocytes. The ability to cleave peptide bond was lost due to replacement of two of the three residues from the conserved catalytic triad characteristic for serine proteinases. Azurocidin is a single polypeptide glycoprotein synthesized as a 251 amino-acid precursor which is subsequently processed by removal of 26 amino-acid residues from the N-terminus and three residues from the C-terminus. The mature polypeptide consists of 222 amino-acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 24 kDa. Azurocidin is an example of a protein which lost its primary proteolytic function in evolution, but gained another activity — it became an important mediator of inflammatory response. As a component of neutrophil azurophilic granules it participates in oxygen-independent killing mechanisms functioning in phagocytosing neutrophils. Azurocidin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. Released extracellularly, azurocidin causes contraction of endothelial cells. Secreted azurocidin attracts monocytes and is responsible for their influx into inflammation sites. These properties make azurocidin a plausible target in new therapies directed against the harmful effects of inflammatory response. Azurocidin is promising biomarker for identification of patients who are at risk in developing sepsis. Plasma HBP levels correlate with the severity of infection and, in particular, with the development of circulatory failure. There is close correlation between increased HBP plasma levels and the development of hypotension, organ failure, and septic shock. Due to its antimicrobial features, elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of HBP distinguish between patients with acute bacterial meningitis and patients with other central nervous system infections.

References to Summary

References to Azurocidin

  • Dhaifalah I, Andrys C, Drahosova M, Musilova I, Adamik Z, Kacerovsky M. Azurocidin levels in maternal serum in the first trimester can predict preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Mar;27 (5):511-5
  • Kaukonen KM, Linko R, Herwald H, Lindbom L, Ruokonen E, Ala-Kokko T, Pettila V. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Dec;19 (12):1122-8
  • Linder A, Akesson P, Brink M, Studahl M, Bjorck L, Christensson B. Heparin-binding protein: a diagnostic marker of acute bacterial meningitis. Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr;39 (4):812-7
  • Linder A, Akesson P, Inghammar M, Treutiger CJ, Linner A, Sunden-Cullberg J. Elevated plasma levels of heparin-binding protein in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care. 2012;16 (3):R90
  • Linder A, Arnold R, Boyd JH, Zindovic M, Zindovic I, Lange A, Paulsson M, Nyberg P, Russell JA, Pritchard D, Christensson B, Akesson P. Heparin-Binding Protein Measurement Improves the Prediction of Severe Infection With Organ Dysfunction in the Emergency Department. Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43 (11):2378-86
  • Linder A, Christensson B, Herwald H, Bjorck L, Akesson P. Heparin-binding protein: an early marker of circulatory failure in sepsis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1;49 (7):1044-50
  • Soehnlein O, Lindbom L. Neutrophil-derived azurocidin alarms the immune system. J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Mar;85 (3):344-51
  • Tapper H, Karlsson A, Morgelin M, Flodgaard H, Herwald H. Secretion of heparin-binding protein from human neutrophils is determined by its localization in azurophilic granules and secretory vesicles. Blood. 2002 Mar 1;99 (5):1785-93
  • Watorek W. Azurocidin -- inactive serine proteinase homolog acting as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50 (3):743-52
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