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Bladder Cancer Panel Human

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Species:Human
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RD11459100CS 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Sample Requirements

40 µl/well

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box)

Calibration Range

Synuclein-γ: 9.77 – 10,000 mU/ml
Midkine: 4.88 – 5,000 pg/ml

Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 1.5 hours
  • The kit measures human Synuclein gamma and Midkine in urine. Additional sample types may be suitable but have not been validated
  • Synuclein-γ standard is a native protein, midkine standard is recombinant protein based
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Oncology

Summary

The synucleins are a small, soluble, highly conserved group of neuronal proteins that have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The synuclein family consists of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein (SNCG).
Synuclein-γ (SNCG) is a human gene localized at 10q23.20-23.3. SNCG cDNA is ~5 kb in length and comprised of five exons that are translated into a protein of 127 amino acids. In cooperation with other members of the family, γ-synuclein plays role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Changes of γ-synuclein expression in peripheral tissues has been linked with metabolic and oncological diseases. SNCG is not clearly involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, a stage-specific upregulation of SNCG has been found in advanced breast carcinomas and other malignancies, including ovarian, gastric, esophagus, liver, colon, pancreatic, and bladder cancers.
γ-Synuclein is highly expressed in human white adipose tissue and increased in obesity.

Midkine (MK, also called neurite growth promoting factor 2, NEGF-2), a product of a retinoic acid responsive gene, is a secreted 13 kDa protein belonging to the family of heparin binding growth/differentiation factors. Midkine is composed of two domains held together by disulfide linkages. The C-terminally located domain contains two heparin binding sites and is usually responsible for midkine activity. Part of the MK activity is enhanced by dimerization of MK.
Midkine has been found in vertebrates from human to zebrafish and is most strongly expressed in midgestation. In the adult MK expression is restricted. In addition to normal development, MK is also involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, e.g. inflammatory diseases, human carcinomas such as esophageal, stomach, colon, pancreatic, thyroid, lung, urinary, hepatocellular, neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, Wilm´s tumor etc. High MK levels are associated with poor prognosis in some types of cancer. The increased expression in many carcinomas indicates that MK can be applied to the diagnosis of malignancy. Midkine is expressed during the reparative stage of bone fractures, also supresses infection of cells by some viruses including HIV. Anti-apoptotic and cell protecting activity of midkine makes it promising in therapy.

Clinical use and areas of investigation:

  • Bladder cancer
  • Oncology
  • Inflammatory diseases
  • Preservation and repair of injured tissues
References to Summary

References to Bladder Cancer Panel

  • Callebaut C, Nisole S, Briand JP, Krust B, Hovanessian AG. Inhibition of HIV infection by the cytokine midkine. Virology. 2001 Mar 15;281 (2):248-64
  • Chen J, Jiao L, Xu C, Yu Y, Zhang Z, Chang Z, Deng Z, Sun Y. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:593
  • Choudhuri R, Zhang HT, Donnini S, Ziche M, Bicknell R. An angiogenic role for the neurokines midkine and pleiotrophin in tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 1997 May 1;57 (9):1814-9
  • Ikematsu S, Nakagawara A, Nakamura Y, Sakuma S, Wakai K, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Correlation of elevated level of blood midkine with poor prognostic factors of human neuroblastomas. Br J Cancer. 2003 May 19;88 (10):1522-6
  • Ikematsu S, Okamoto K, Yoshida Y, Oda M, Sugano-Nagano H, Ashida K, Kumai H, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu H, Takashi Muramatsu, Sakuma S. High levels of urinary midkine in various cancer patients. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jun 27;306 (2):329-32
  • Ikematsu S, Yano A, Aridome K, Kikuchi M, Kumai H, Nagano H, Okamoto K, Oda M, Sakuma S, Aikou T, Muramatsu H, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu T. Serum midkine levels are increased in patients with various types of carcinomas. Br J Cancer. 2000 Sep;83 (6):701-6
  • Jia HL, Ye QH, Qin LX, Budhu A, Forgues M, Chen Y, Liu YK, Sun HC, Wang L, Lu HZ, Shen F, Tang ZY, Wang XW. Gene expression profiling reveals potential biomarkers of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 15;13 (4):1133-9
  • Kokhan VS, Van'kin GI, Bachurin SO, Shamakina IY. Differential involvement of the gamma-synuclein in cognitive abilities on the model of knockout mice. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:53
  • Konishi N, Nakamura M, Nakaoka S, Hiasa Y, Cho M, Uemura H, Hirao Y, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Immunohistochemical analysis of midkine expression in human prostate carcinoma. Oncology. 1999 Oct;57 (3):253-7
  • Liang B, Wang XJ, Shen PH, Li XY, Cheng HW, Shan Q, Guo KY, Cao YW, Fan QX, Zheng RF, Li B, Zhang W, Li YW, Yang K. Synuclein-gamma suppression mediated by RNA interference inhibits the clonogenicity and invasiveness of MCF-7 cells. Oncol Lett. 2013 Apr;5 (4):1347-1352
  • Millership S, Ninkina N, Guschina IA, Norton J, Brambilla R, Oort PJ, Adams SH, Dennis RJ, Voshol PJ, Rochford JJ, Buchman VL. Increased lipolysis and altered lipid homeostasis protect gamma-synuclein-null mutant mice from diet-induced obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 18;109 (51):20943-8
  • Shimada H, Nabeya Y, Okazumi S, Matsubara H, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu T, Ikematsu S, Sakuma S, Ochiai T. Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2003 Mar-Apr;10 (2):411-4
  • Ye C, Qi M, Fan QW, Ito K, Akiyama S, Kasai Y, Matsuyama M, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Expression of midkine in the early stage of carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jan;79 (1):179-84
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