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Manufactured by BioVendor

GDF-15/MIC-1 Human (CHO Cells)

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Recombinant protein
  • Source:Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO)
  • Other names:Growth differentiation factor 15, MIC-1, Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1, Placental TGFβ, Prostate Differentiation Factor (PDF), PLAB, NRG-1
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price

RBG10164C005 5 µg
RBG10164C020 20 µg
RBG10164C100 100 µg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data


Recombinant protein


GDF-15 belongs to the TGF-β cytokine family, whose members play an important role during prenatal development and postnatal growth, and the remodeling and maintenance of a variety of tissues and organs. GDF-15 is expressed predominantly in the placenta and, to a much lesser extent, in various other tissues. The presence of GDF-15 in amniotic fluid and its elevated levels in the sera of pregnant women suggest GDF-15's involvement in gestation and embryonic development. GDF-15 generally exerts tumor suppressive activities and is one of the predominant factors produced and secreted in response to activation of the p53 pathway. Interestingly, the serum level of GDF-15 is positively correlated with neoplastic progression of several tumor types, including certain colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Human GDF-15/MIC-1 is a disulfide linked homodimeric protein consisting of two 112 amino acid polypeptide chains. The calculated molecular weight of Human GDF-15/MIC-1 is 24.6 kDa.

Amino Acid Sequence



Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO)


≥ 95% by SDS-PAGE gel and HPLC analyses.

Biological Activity

Determined by its ability to inhibit alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating MC3T3/E1 osteoblastcells. The expected ED50 for this effect is 75-200 ng/ml.




Research topic

Cardiovascular disease, Cytokines and chemokines and related molecules, Oncology, Reproduction


GDF-15/MIC-1 is synthesized as a 62-kDa precursor protein, which, after cleavage by furin-like protease, is secreted as 25-kDa disulfide-linked dimmer. GDF-15/MIC-1 is weakly produced under baseline condition in most tissues such as brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, but not normally in many other organs including the heart, and is highly expressed in placenta and moderately in prostate. GDF-15 is upregulated by cardiovascular events triggering oxidative stress, including pressure overload, and atherosclerosis. Moreover, increased circulating GDF-15 concentrations have been linked to an enhanced risk of future adverse cardiovascular events in elderly woman and it was describe as a new biomarker of the risk of death in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Serum GDF-15 concentrations increase in maternal serum with advancing gestation in normal pregnancy. Low GDF-15 concentrations reportedly are associated with an increased risk of preterm labor or miscarriage.

Summary References (15)

References to GDF-15/MIC-1

  • Ago T, Sadoshima J. GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein. Circ Res. 2006 Feb 17;98 (3):294-7
  • Bootcov MR, Bauskin AR, Valenzuela SM, Moore AG, Bansal M, He XY, Zhang HP, Donnellan M, Mahler S, Pryor K, Walsh BJ, Nicholson RC, Fairlie WD, Por SB, Robbins JM, Breit SN. MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94 (21):11514-9
  • Brown DA, Moore J, Johnen H, Smeets TJ, Bauskin AR, Kuffner T, Weedon H, Milliken ST, Tak PP, Smith MD, Breit SN. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential marker of erosive joint destruction. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Mar;56 (3):753-64
  • Brown DA, Ward RL, Buckhaults P, Liu T, Romans KE, Hawkins NJ, Bauskin AR, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Breit SN. MIC-1 serum level and genotype: associations with progress and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jul;9 (7):2642-50
  • Eggers KM, Kempf T, Allhoff T, Lindahl B, Wallentin L, Wollert KC. Growth-differentiation factor-15 for early risk stratification in patients with acute chest pain. Eur Heart J. 2008 Oct;29 (19):2327-35
  • Huang CY, Beer TM, Higano CS, True LD, Vessella R, Lange PH, Garzotto M, Nelson PS. Molecular alterations in prostate carcinomas that associate with in vivo exposure to chemotherapy: identification of a cytoprotective mechanism involving growth differentiation factor 15. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 1;13 (19):5825-33
  • Keelan JA, Wang K, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Mitchell MD, Sato TA, Brown DA, Fairlie WD, Breit SN. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 in fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from pregnancies with and without preterm labour and premature rupture of membranes. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003 Sep;9 (9):535-40
  • Kempf T, Bjorklund E, Olofsson S, Lindahl B, Allhoff T, Peter T, Tongers J, Wollert KC, Wallentin L. Growth-differentiation factor-15 improves risk stratification in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2007 Dec;28 (23):2858-65
  • Kempf T, Eden M, Strelau J, Naguib M, Willenbockel C, Tongers J, Heineke J, Kotlarz D, Xu J, Molkentin JD, Niessen HW, Drexler H, Wollert KC. The transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member growth-differentiation factor-15 protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circ Res. 2006 Feb 17;98 (3):351-60
  • Kempf T, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Peter T, Allhoff T, Klein G, Drexler H, Johnston N, Wallentin L, Wollert KC. Circulating concentrations of growth-differentiation factor 15 in apparently healthy elderly individuals and patients with chronic heart failure as assessed by a new immunoradiometric sandwich assay. Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53 (2):284-91
  • Liu T, Bauskin AR, Zaunders J, Brown DA, Pankhurst S, Russell PJ, Breit SN. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 reduces cell adhesion and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;63 (16):5034-40
  • Moore AG, Brown DA, Fairlie WD, Bauskin AR, Brown PK, Munier ML, Russell PK, Salamonsen LA, Wallace EM, Breit SN. The transforming growth factor-ss superfamily cytokine macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is present in high concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85 (12):4781-8
  • Selander KS, Brown DA, Sequeiros GB, Hunter M, Desmond R, Parpala T, Risteli J, Breit SN, Jukkola-Vuorinen A. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 concentrations correlate with the presence of prostate cancer bone metastases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Pr. 2007 Mar;16 (3):532-7
  • Tanno T, Bhanu NV, Oneal PA, Goh SH, Staker P, Lee YT, Moroney JW, Reed CH, Luban NL, Wang RH, Eling TE, Childs R, Ganz T, Leitman SF, Fucharoen S, Miller JL. High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin. Nat Med. 2007 Sep;13 (9):1096-101
  • Wollert KC, Kempf T, Lagerqvist B, Lindahl B, Olofsson S, Allhoff T, Peter T, Siegbahn A, Venge P, Drexler H, Wallentin L. Growth differentiation factor 15 for risk s
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