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Manufactured by BioVendor

GDF-15/MIC-1 Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Growth differentiation factor 15, MIC-1, Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1, Placental TGFβ, Prostate Differentiation Factor (PDF), PLAB, NRG-1
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price

RD191135200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data


Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody


Serum, Plasma

Sample Requirements

30 μl/well


At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.


Store the complete kit at 2 – 8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

35–4480 pg/ml

Limit of Detection

16 pg/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 6.8%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 8; CV = 4.3%

Spiking Recovery


Dilution Linearity



  • bovine Non-detectable
  • cat Non-detectable
  • dog Non-detectable
  • goat Non-detectable
  • hamster Non-detectable
  • horse Non-detectable
  • mouse Non-detectable
  • pig Non-detectable
  • rabbit Non-detectable
  • rat Non-detectable
  • sheep Non-detectable
  • chicken Not tested
  • human Yes
  • monkey Yes (recommended dilution 1:3)


  • European Union: for in vitro diagnostic use
  • Rest of the world: for research use only!
  • The total assay time is less than 3.5 hours.
  • The kit measures Human GDF-15 in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin).
  • Assay format is 96 wells.
  • Quality Controls are human serum based. No animal sera are used.
  • Standard is recombinant protein based.
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized.

Research topic

Cardiovascular disease, Cytokines and chemokines and related molecules, Oncology, Reproduction


GDF-15/MIC-1 is synthesized as a 62-kDa precursor protein, which, after cleavage by furin-like protease, is secreted as 25-kDa disulfide-linked dimmer. GDF-15/MIC-1 is weakly produced under baseline condition in most tissues such as brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, but not normally in many other organs including the heart, and is highly expressed in placenta and moderately in prostate. GDF-15 is upregulated by cardiovascular events triggering oxidative stress, including pressure overload, and atherosclerosis. Moreover, increased circulating GDF-15 concentrations have been linked to an enhanced risk of future adverse cardiovascular events in elderly woman and it was describe as a new biomarker of the risk of death in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Serum GDF-15 concentrations increase in maternal serum with advancing gestation in normal pregnancy. Low GDF-15 concentrations reportedly are associated with an increased risk of preterm labor or miscarriage.

Product References (10)


  • Arslan D, Cihan T, Kose D, Vatansev H, Cimen D, Koksal Y, Oran B, Akyurek F.Growth-differentiation factor-15 and tissue doppler ımaging in detection ofasymptomatic anthracycline cardiomyopathy in childhood cancer survivors. ClinBiochem. 2013 Sep;46(13-14):1239-43. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.06.029. Epub2013 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 23850849. See more on PubMed
  • Dostálová I, Kaválková P, Papežová H, Domluvilová D, Zikán V, Haluzík M.Association of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 with nutritional status, bodycomposition and bone mineral density in patients with anorexia nervosa: theinfluence of partial realimentation. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Apr 23;7:34. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-34. PubMed PMID: 20416056; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2875215. See more on PubMed
  • Dostálová I, Roubícek T, Bártlová M, Mráz M, Lacinová Z, Haluzíková D,Kaválková P, Matoulek M, Kasalicky M, Haluzík M. Increased serum concentrationsof macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of very low calorie diet. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009Sep;161(3):397-404. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0417. Epub 2009 Jun 10. PubMed PMID:19515791. See more on PubMed
  • Izumiya Y, Hanatani S, Kimura Y, Takashio S, Yamamoto E, Kusaka H, Tokitsu T, Rokutanda T, Araki S, Tsujita K, Tanaka T, Yamamuro M, Kojima S, Tayama S,Kaikita K, Hokimoto S, Ogawa H. Growth differentiation factor-15 is a usefulprognostic marker in patients with heart failure with preserved ejectionfraction. Can J Cardiol. 2014 Mar;30(3):338-44. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2013.12.010. Epub 2013 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 24484911. See more on PubMed
  • Jenab Y, Pourjafari M, Sotoudeh M, Lotfi-Tokaldany M, Etesamifard N, ShiraniS, Jalali A, Nozari Y, Poorhosseini HR. Comparing the effect of cardiacbiomarkers on the outcome of normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism.Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2017 May 18;87(1):767. doi: 10.4081/monaldi.2017.767.PubMed PMID: 28635193. See more on PubMed
  • Montoro-García S, Hernández-Romero D, Jover E, García-Honrubia A, Vilchez JA, Casas T, Martínez P, Climent V, Caballero L, Valdés M, Marín F. Growthdifferentiation factor-15, a novel biomarker related with disease severity inpatients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur J Intern Med. 2012Mar;23(2):169-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2011.08.022. Epub 2011 Sep 15. PubMed PMID:22284249. See more on PubMed
  • Prystupa A, Kiciński P, Luchowska-Kocot D, Błażewicz A, Niedziałek J, MizerskiG, Jojczuk M, Ochal A, Sak JJ, Załuska W. Association between Serum SeleniumConcentrations and Levels of Proinflammatory and ProfibroticCytokines-Interleukin-6 and Growth Differentiation Factor-15, in Patients withAlcoholic Liver Cirrhosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Apr 21;14(4).pii: E437. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14040437. PubMed PMID: 28430124; PubMed CentralPMCID: PMC5409638. See more on PubMed
  • Södergren A, Karp K, Bengtsson C, Möller B, Rantapää-Dahlqvist S,Wållberg-Jonsson S. Biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in patientswith early rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS One. 2019 Aug 5;14(8):e0220531. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220531. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31381601; PubMedCentral PMCID: PMC6681963. See more on PubMed
  • Stejskal D, Karpísek M, Humenanská V, Lacnák B, Svesták M.Macrophage-inhibitory cytokine-1 (mic-1) in differential diagnosis of dyspnea--a pilot study. Clin Biochem. 2009 Sep;42(13-14):1347-51. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.03.022. Epub 2009 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 19341722. See more on PubMed
  • Yalcin MM, Altinova AE, Akturk M, Gulbahar O, Arslan E, Ors Sendogan D, YetkinI, Toruner FB. GDF-15 and Hepcidin Levels in Nonanemic Patients with ImpairedGlucose Tolerance. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:1240843. doi: 10.1155/2016/1240843. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PubMed PMID: 27642607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5014962. See more on PubMed
Summary References (15)

References to GDF-15/MIC-1

  • Ago T, Sadoshima J. GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein. Circ Res. 2006 Feb 17;98 (3):294-7
  • Bootcov MR, Bauskin AR, Valenzuela SM, Moore AG, Bansal M, He XY, Zhang HP, Donnellan M, Mahler S, Pryor K, Walsh BJ, Nicholson RC, Fairlie WD, Por SB, Robbins JM, Breit SN. MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94 (21):11514-9
  • Brown DA, Moore J, Johnen H, Smeets TJ, Bauskin AR, Kuffner T, Weedon H, Milliken ST, Tak PP, Smith MD, Breit SN. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential marker of erosive joint destruction. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Mar;56 (3):753-64
  • Brown DA, Ward RL, Buckhaults P, Liu T, Romans KE, Hawkins NJ, Bauskin AR, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Breit SN. MIC-1 serum level and genotype: associations with progress and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jul;9 (7):2642-50
  • Eggers KM, Kempf T, Allhoff T, Lindahl B, Wallentin L, Wollert KC. Growth-differentiation factor-15 for early risk stratification in patients with acute chest pain. Eur Heart J. 2008 Oct;29 (19):2327-35
  • Huang CY, Beer TM, Higano CS, True LD, Vessella R, Lange PH, Garzotto M, Nelson PS. Molecular alterations in prostate carcinomas that associate with in vivo exposure to chemotherapy: identification of a cytoprotective mechanism involving growth differentiation factor 15. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 1;13 (19):5825-33
  • Keelan JA, Wang K, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Mitchell MD, Sato TA, Brown DA, Fairlie WD, Breit SN. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 in fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from pregnancies with and without preterm labour and premature rupture of membranes. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003 Sep;9 (9):535-40
  • Kempf T, Bjorklund E, Olofsson S, Lindahl B, Allhoff T, Peter T, Tongers J, Wollert KC, Wallentin L. Growth-differentiation factor-15 improves risk stratification in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2007 Dec;28 (23):2858-65
  • Kempf T, Eden M, Strelau J, Naguib M, Willenbockel C, Tongers J, Heineke J, Kotlarz D, Xu J, Molkentin JD, Niessen HW, Drexler H, Wollert KC. The transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member growth-differentiation factor-15 protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circ Res. 2006 Feb 17;98 (3):351-60
  • Kempf T, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Peter T, Allhoff T, Klein G, Drexler H, Johnston N, Wallentin L, Wollert KC. Circulating concentrations of growth-differentiation factor 15 in apparently healthy elderly individuals and patients with chronic heart failure as assessed by a new immunoradiometric sandwich assay. Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53 (2):284-91
  • Liu T, Bauskin AR, Zaunders J, Brown DA, Pankhurst S, Russell PJ, Breit SN. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 reduces cell adhesion and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;63 (16):5034-40
  • Moore AG, Brown DA, Fairlie WD, Bauskin AR, Brown PK, Munier ML, Russell PK, Salamonsen LA, Wallace EM, Breit SN. The transforming growth factor-ss superfamily cytokine macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is present in high concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85 (12):4781-8
  • Selander KS, Brown DA, Sequeiros GB, Hunter M, Desmond R, Parpala T, Risteli J, Breit SN, Jukkola-Vuorinen A. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 concentrations correlate with the presence of prostate cancer bone metastases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Pr. 2007 Mar;16 (3):532-7
  • Tanno T, Bhanu NV, Oneal PA, Goh SH, Staker P, Lee YT, Moroney JW, Reed CH, Luban NL, Wang RH, Eling TE, Childs R, Ganz T, Leitman SF, Fucharoen S, Miller JL. High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin. Nat Med. 2007 Sep;13 (9):1096-101
  • Wollert KC, Kempf T, Lagerqvist B, Lindahl B, Olofsson S, Allhoff T, Peter T, Siegbahn A, Venge P, Drexler H, Wallentin L. Growth differentiation factor 15 for risk s
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