Gremlin-1 (isoform-1) belongs to a group of diffusible proteins that bind to ligands of the TGF-β family and regulate their activity by inhibiting their access to signaling receptors. The interplay between TGF-β ligands and their natural antagonists has major biological significance during development processes, in which cellular response can vary considerably depending upon the local concentration of the signaling molecule. Gremlin-1 is highly expressed in the small intestine, fetal brain, and colon; and is expressed at lower levels in the brain, prostate, pancreas, and in skeletal muscle. Gremlin-1 regulates multiple functions in early development by specifically binding to, and inhibiting the function of, BMP-2, –4, and –7. It also plays a role in carcinogenesis and kidney branching morphogenesis. Recombinant Human Gremlin-1 is a 18.3 kDa protein containing 160 amino acid residues.
Amino Acid Sequence
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO)
Determined by its ability to inhibit BMP-4 induced alkaline phosphatase production by ATDC-5 chondrogenic cells. The ED 50 for this effect is 0.07–0.11µg/ml.
Endotoxin level is <0.1 ng/μg of protein (<1EU/μg).
Centrifuge the vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1–1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. For extended storage, it is recommended to further dilute in a buffer containing a carrier protein (example 0.1% BSA) and store in working aliquots at-20°C to –80°C.