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Interleukin-21 Murine E. coli

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Recombinant protein
  • Source:E. coli
  • Other names:Za11, IL-21, Cytokine CX2
  • Species:Murine
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Cat. No. Size Price


RBG20021002 2 µg
RBG20021010 10 µg
RBG20021100 100 μg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Recombinant protein

Description

IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by CD4+ T cells in response to antigenic stimulation. Its action generally enhances antigen-specific responses of immune cells. The biological effects of IL-21 include induction of differentiation of T cells-stimulated B-cells into plasma cells and memory B-cells, stimulation (in conjuction) with IL-4 of IgG production and induction of apoptotic effects in B-cells and stimulated B-cells in the absence of T cell signaling. Ad­ditionally, IL-21 promotes the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ T cells and NK cells. IL-21 exerts its effect through binding to a specific type I cytokine receptor, IL-21R, which also contains the ɣ chain (ɣc) found in other cytokine receptors including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15. The IL-21/IL-21R interaction triggers a cascade of events which includes activation of the tyrosine kinases JAK1 and JAK3, followed by activation of the transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3. Recombinant human IL-21 is a 15.4 kDa protein consisting of 132 amino acid residues.

Amino Acid Sequence

MHKSSPQGPDRLLIRLRHLIDIVEQLKIYENDLDPELLSAPQDVKGHCEHAAFACFQKAKLKPSNPGNNKTFIIDLVAQLRRRLPARRGGKKQKHIAKCPSCDSYEKRTPKEFLERLKWLLQKMIHQHLS

Source

E. coli

Purity

98%

Biological Activity

Assay #1: Measured by its ability to increase proliferation in mouse splenocytes induced by anti-hCD40 mAb. The expected ED50 is 15–20 ng/ml. Assay #2: Determined by its ability to stimulate the proliferation of human ANBL-6 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 1.0 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of ≥ 1×106 units/mg

Endotoxin

Endotoxin level is <0.1 ng/μg of protein (<1EU/μg).

Reconstitution

Centrifuge the vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1–1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. This solution can be stored at 2–8°C for up to 1 week. For extended storage, it is recommended to further dilute in a buffer containing a carrier protein (example 0.1% BSA) and store in working aliquots at –20°C to –80°C.

Storage/Expiration

 –20°C

Summary

Research topic

Cytokines and chemokines and related molecules, Animal studies

Summary

Interleukin-21 is the most recently discovered member of the type-I cytokine family. Structurally, IL-21 shows homology to IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15 proteins. IL-21 shares the common gamma-chain with these three cytokines, but, in addition, binds to a unique IL-21R alpha chain, and activates the JAK/STAT pathway. IL-21 has pleiotropic actions, from augmenting the proliferation of T cells and driving the differentiation of B cells into memory cells and terminally differentiated plasma cells to augmenting the activity of natural killer cells. IL-21 is mainly produced by activated T-cells, but targets a broad range of lymphoid and myeloid cells of the immune system and therefore is able to regulate innate and acquired immune responses. IL-21 has pathologic function in immune-inflammatory diseases. Data suggest the existence of a positive autocrine loop that could help to amplify and stabilize IL-21-driven, T cell-mediated responses. Moreover, it has antitumour activity and may have a role in the development of autoimmunity. IL-21 may have therapeutic potentials as an antitumor agent in the clinic.

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