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MxA Protein: A Clinically Significant Biomarker

Introduction to MxA Protein


 Human MxA protein (Myxovirus resistance protein 1), the product of the MX1 gene, is a 76-kDa protein consisting of 662 amino acid residues and belonging to the dynamic superfamily of large GTPase. 

MxA protein plays an important role in antiviral activity in cells against a wide variety of viruses, including influenza, parainfluenza, measles, coxsackie, hepatitis B virus, and Thogoto virus. The viruses are inhibited by MxA protein at an early stage in their life cycle, soon after host cell entry and before genome amplification. The mouse Mx1 protein (mouse analog of human MxA protein) accumulates in the cell nucleus where it associates with nuclear bodies and inhibits influenza and Thogoto viruses known to replicate in the nucleus.

The human MxA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum as well. The membrane compartment of endoplasmatic reticulum seems to provide an interaction platform that facilitates viral target recognition. MxA appears to detect viral infection by sensing and trapping nucleocapsidlike structures. As a consequence, the viral components become unavailable for the generation of new virus particles. 

The expression of viral MxA protein is induced exclusively and in a dose-dependent manner by IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not by IFN-gamma, IL-1, TNF-alpha or other cytokines.

Differentiate Between Viral & Bacterial Infections


Bacterial and viral infections are both caused by microbes - bacteria and viruses, respectively. But the treatments vary significantly. In some cases, it is difficult to determine the origin of an infection because many ailments - including pneumonia, meningitis, and diarrhea can be caused by either bacteria or viruses.

Biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) have established positions as general biomarkers for bacterial infections. However, these biomarkers lack adequate clinical specificity to differentiate a viral from a bacterial infection and ultimately lead to antibiotic overtreatment of viral infections. Treatment of viral infection with antibiotics is not only ineffective, but also contributes heavily to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance


Research data show that MxA protein is selectively increased in patients with viral infections and has the potential to greatly enhance the rapid distinction between viral and bacterial respiratory infections

Furthermore, MxA protein may offer advantages as a marker for viral infection over other induced proteins such as 2‘, 5‘-oligoadenylate synthetase, because of its very low basal concentration and long half-life.


Typical MxA Protein Values

Viral infections: 40 – 250 ng/ml
Bacterial infections: < 40 ng/ml
Normal range: 0 – 10 ng/ml

Monitor IFN-beta Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Although there is no known cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), new treatments are proving effective at slowing the disease. Human recombinant IFN-β is one of the first-line drugs for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Unfortunately, many patients develop neutralizing antibodies (NAb) that hinder its effectiveness. Because of this, it is important to monitor the bioavailability of the IFN-β administered. 

Serum concentrations of IFN-β are very low after the administration of therapeutic dosages and their measurement is technically difficult. Instead, MxA protein quantification may offer an effective method to monitor bioavailability of IFN-β treatments. Expression of MxA protein is induced by IFN-β, and thus MxA protein levels increase with IFN-β treatment. However, the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) over the course of treatment will lead to an attenuation of MxA protein levels. As IFN-β bioavailability decreases in response to NAb, it may become necessary to switch a patient to a different drug.

MxA Protein Human ELISA

We are proud to offer the BioVendor ELISA kit for quantitative measurement of MxA Protein in whole blood cell lysate samples!

Manufactured by BioVendor

Cat. No. Size Price

RD194349200R 96 wells (1 kit) 595 €


Measures MxA protein in whole blood cell lysates
96-well sandwich ELISA, biotin-labelled antibody
Standard is native MxA protein based
The total assay time is less than 3 hours
Calibration Range .375 – 12 ng/ml
Limit of Detection 0.001 ng/ml
Intra-assay CV = 4.7%
Inter-assay CV = 7%
Spiking Recovery 99.70%
Dilution Linearity 95.60%
Manufactured in Europe by BioVendor
Distinguish between viral and bacterial infections
Determination of IFN-β bioactivity in MS therapy
Monitoring of neutralizing Abs in IFN-β therapy
Asses effectivity of IFN-α therapy in HBV and HCV patients


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Product details



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