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Manufactured by BioVendor

Midkine Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:MK, NEGF-2, Neurite growth promoting factor 2
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price

Availability on Request RD191042200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data


Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody


Serum, Plasma-Heparin, Plasma-Citrate, Tissue extract, Cell culture supernatant

Sample Requirements

20 µl/well


At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.


Store the kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

0.2–10 ng/ml

Limit of Detection

Analytical Limit of Detection is calculated from the real Midkine values in wells and is 0.033ng/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 4.5%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 5; CV = 6.3%

Spiking Recovery


Dilution Linearity



  • bovine Non-detectable
  • cat Non-detectable
  • goat Non-detectable
  • hamster Non-detectable
  • horse Non-detectable
  • dog Yes (recommended dilution 1:5)
  • monkey Non-detectable
  • mouse Non-detectable
  • pig Non-detectable
  • rabbit Non-detectable
  • rat Non-detectable
  • sheep Non-detectable
  • chicken Not tested
  • human Yes


  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 5 hours
  • The kit measures midkine in serum, citrate plasma and heparin plasma
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Quality Controls and Master Standard are human serum based
  • Standard is recombinant protein based
  • Standard Diluent contains animal serum
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic



Midkine (MK, also called neurite growth promoting factor 2, NEGF-2), a product of a retinoic
acid responsive gene, is a secreted 13 kDa protein belonging to the family of heparin binding
growth/differentiation factors. MK shares 45% sequence identity with another member of this
family called Pleiotrophin (HB-GAM). Midkine is composed of two domains held together by
disulfide linkages. The C-terminally located domain contains two heparin binding sites and is
usually responsible for midkine activity. Part of the MK activity is enhanced by dimerization of

Midkine has been found in vertebrates from human to zebrafish and is most strongly expressed
in midgestation. In the adult MK expression is restricted. In addition to normal development,
MK is also involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, e.g. inflammatory diseases, human
carcinomas such as esophageal, stomach, colon, pancreatic, thyroid, lung, urinary,
hepatocellular, neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, Wilm´s tumor etc. High MK levels are associated
with poor prognosis in some types of cancer. The increased expression in many carcinomas
indicates that MK can be applied to the diagnosis of malignancy. Midkine is expressed during
the reparative stage of bone fractures, also supresses infection of cells by some viruses
including HIV. Anti-apoptotic and cell protecting activity of midkine makes it promising in

Areas of investigation: Oncology, Inflammatory diseases, Preservation and repair of injured tissues.

Product References (9)


  • Giamanco NM, Jee YH, Wellstein A, Shriver CD, Summers TA, Baron J. Midkine andpleiotrophin concentrations in needle biopsies of breast and lung masses. Cancer Biomark. 2017 Sep 7;20(3):299-307. doi: 10.3233/CBM-170145. PubMed PMID:28946562; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6296221. See more on PubMed
  • Hodeib H, ELshora O, Selim A, Sabry NM, El-Ashry HM. Serum Midkine andOsteopontin Levels as Diagnostic Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ElectronPhysician. 2017 Jan 25;9(1):3492-3498. doi: 10.19082/3492. eCollection 2017 Jan. PubMed PMID: 28243398; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5308486. See more on PubMed
  • Jee YH, Lee KS, Yue S, Leschek EW, Boden MG, Jadra A, Klibanski A,Vaidyanathan P, Misra M, Chang YP, Yanovski JA, Baron J. Plasma midkineconcentrations in healthy children, children with increased and decreasedadiposity, and children with short stature. PLoS One. 2019 Oct24;14(10):e0224103. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224103. eCollection 2019. PubMedPMID: 31648221; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6812815. See more on PubMed
  • Jia HL, Ye QH, Qin LX, Budhu A, Forgues M, Chen Y, Liu YK, Sun HC, Wang L, Lu HZ, Shen F, Tang ZY, Wang XW. Gene expression profiling reveals potentialbiomarkers of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Feb15;13(4):1133-9. PubMed PMID: 17317821. See more on PubMed
  • Krzystek-Korpacka M, Neubauer K, Matusiewicz M. Circulating midkine in Crohn'sdisease: clinical implications. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 Feb;16(2):208-15. doi:10.1002/ibd.21011. PubMed PMID: 19572374. See more on PubMed
  • Krzystek-Korpacka M, Neubauer K, Matusiewicz M. Clinical relevance ofcirculating midkine in ulcerative colitis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(9):1085-90.doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2009.248. PubMed PMID: 19728850. See more on PubMed
  • Malyszko J, Bachorzewska-Gajewska H, Koc-Zorawska E, Malyszko JS, Kobus G,Dobrzycki S. Midkine: a novel and early biomarker of contrast-induced acutekidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:879509. doi: 10.1155/2015/879509. Epub 2015 Jan 5. PubMedPMID: 25629054; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4299314. See more on PubMed
  • Tong Y, Mentlein R, Buhl R, Hugo HH, Krause J, Mehdorn HM, Held-Feindt J.Overexpression of midkine contributes to anti-apoptotic effects in humanmeningiomas. J Neurochem. 2007 Feb;100(4):1097-107. Epub 2006 Dec 20. PubMedPMID: 17181554. See more on PubMed
  • Zhang YW, Denham J, Thies RS. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived fromhuman embryonic stem cells express neurotrophic factors. Stem Cells Dev. 2006Dec;15(6):943-52. PubMed PMID: 17253955. See more on PubMed
Summary References (12)

References to Midkine

  • Choudhuri R., Zhang, H. T., Donnini, S., Ziche, M. and Bicknell, R.: An angiogenic role for the neurokines midkine and pleiotrophin in tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 57, 1814–1819. (1997)
  • Ye, C., Qi, M., Fan, Q.-W., Ito, K., Akiyama, S., Kasai, Y., Matsuyama, M., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Expression of midkine in the early stage of carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Brit. J. Cancer 79, 179–184. (1999)
  • Konishi, N., Nakamura, M., Nakaoka, S., Hiasa, Y., Cho, M., Uemura, H., Hirao, Y., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Immunohistochemical analysis of midkine expression in human prostate carcinoma. Oncology 57,253–257. (1999)
  • Ohta, S., Muramatsu, H., Senda, T., Zou, K., Iwata, H. and Muramatsu, T.: Midkine is expressed during repair of bone fracture and promotes chondrogenesis. J. Bone Miner. Res. 14, 1132–1144. (1999)
  • Ikematsu, S., Yano, A., Aridome, K., Kikuchi, M., Kumai, H., Nagano, H., Okamoto, K., Oda, M., Sakuma, S., Aikou, T., Muramatsu, H., Kadomatsu, K. and Muramatsu, T.: Serum midkine levels are increased in patients with various types of carcinomas. Brit. J. Cancer. 83, 701–706. (2000)
  • Callebaut, C., Nisole, S., Briand, J. P., Krust, B. and Hovanessian, A. G.: Inhibition of HIV infection by the cytokine midkine. Virology 281, 248–264. (2001)
  • Sato, W., Kadomatsu, K., Yuzawa, Y., Muramatsu, H., Hotta, N., Matsuo, S. and Muramatsu T.: Midkine is involved in neutrophil infiltration into the tubulointerstitium in ischemic renal injury. J. Immunol. 167, 3463–3469. (2001)
  • Shimada, H., Nabeya, Y., Okazumi, S., Matsubara, H., Kadomatsu, K., Muramatsu, T., Ikematsu, S., Sakuma, S. and Ochiai, T.: Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Oncol. Rep. 10, 411–414. (2003)
  • Ikematsu, S., Nakagawara, A., Nakamura, Y., Sakuma, S., Wakai, K., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Correlation of elevated level of blood midkine with poor prognostic factors of human neuroblastomas. Br. J. Cancer 88, 1522–1526. (2003)
  • Ikematsu, S., Okamoto, K., Yoshida, Y., Oda, M., Sugano-Nagano, H., Ashida, K., Kumai, H., Kadomatsu, K., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T. and Sakuma, S.: High levels of urinary midkine in various cancer patients. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 329–332. (2003)
  • Maruyama, K., Muramatsu, H., Ishiguro, N., and Muramatsu, T.: Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is fundamentally involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 50, 1420–1429.
  • Obata, Y., Kikuchi, S., Lin, Y., Yagyu, K., Muramatsu, T., Kumai, H.: Serum midkine concentrations and gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 96, 54 – 56 (2005)
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