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Procalcitonin Horse E. coli

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Recombinant protein
  • Source:E. coli
  • Other names:PCT
  • Species:Horse
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New RD872582100 0.1 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Recombinant protein

Description

Total 122 AA. MW: 13.5 kDa (calculated). UniProtKB acc. no. Q9N0V5 (Ala26-Tyr140). C-terminal His-tag (6 extra AA). Protein identity confirmed by LC-MS/MS.

Amino Acid Sequence

MAPFRSALESLPDPAVLPEEESRLLLAALVKDYVQMKVRALEQEQETGGASLDSPRAKRCSNLSTCVLGTYTQDLNKFHTFPQTAIGVGAPGKKRVMARGLERDHGPHIGTSQDAYHHHHHH

Source

E. coli

Purity

Purity as determined by densitometric image analysis: > 90 %

SDS-PAGE Gel

14 % SDS-PAGE separation of Horse Procalcitonin:

  1. M.W. marker – 14, 21, 31, 45, 66, 97 kDa
  2. Reduced and boiled sample, 2.5 μg/lane
  3. Non-reduced and non-boiled sample, 2.5 μg/lane

Endotoxin

< 0.1 EU/µg

Formulation

Filtered (0.4 μm) and lyophilized from 0.5 mg/ml solution in 20 mM Tris buffer, 200 mM NaCl, 5%w/v trehalose pH 7.5.

Reconstitution

Add deionized water to prepare a working stock solution of approximately 0.5 mg/ml and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely. During subsequent work keep protein in salted buffer, pure protein can precipitate below 150mM salt.

Applications

Western blotting, ELISA

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

Store lyophilized protein at –80°C. Lyophilized protein remains stable until the expiry date when stored at –80°C. Aliquot reconstituted protein to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store at –80°C for long term storage. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4°C for a week.

Quality Control Test

BCA to determine quantity of the protein.

SDS PAGE to determine purity of the protein.

LAL to determine quantity of endotoxin.

Note

This product is intended for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Sepsis

Summary

Procalcitonin (PCT) the precursor of the hormone calcitonin is a 116 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 13 kDa. It undergoes successive cleavages in the neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid to form three distinct molecules: calcitonin (32 amino acids); katacalcin (21 amino acids) and N-terminal fragment called aminoprocalcitonin (57 amino acids). Procalcitonin belongs to a group of related proteins including calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II, amylin, adrenomodulin and calcitonin (CAPA peptide family). Synthesis of procalcitonin is regulated gene CALC-1. Under normal metabolic conditions procalcitonin is present in the C-cells of the thyroid gland. The level of procalcitonin in the blood of healthy individuals is low. The risk of local bacterial infection occurs when the value of procalcitonin exceeds 0.25 ng/ml. The risk of systemic bacterial infection occurs when the value of procalcitonin exceeds 0.5 ng/ml. Bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS) has been shown to be a potent inducer of procalcitonin release into systemic circulation. This release is not associated with an increase in calcitonin. Procalcitonin levels increase from 3 to 4 hours, peak at about 6 hours and then plateau for up to 24 hours. In contrast, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels rise between 12 and 18 hours after bacterial challenge. In blood serum, procalcitonin has a half-life of between 25 and 30 hours. A study showed that hepatocytes produce large amounts of procalcitonin following stimulation with TNF-α and IL-6. In acute pancreatitis, procalcitonin closely correlates with the development of pancreatic infections. Since procalcitonin has been reported to be increased in different non-septic conditions such as major trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, rejection after transplantation, cardiogenic shock, severe burns and heat-stroke, the discriminative power of procalcitonin could be hampered in these particular patient categories. A recent study concluded that children with bacterial pneumonia had significantly higher procalcitonin levels than those with a viral aetiology, but there was a significant degree of overlap. Procalcitonin has the greatest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating patients with SIRS from those with sepsis, when compared to IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, CRP and TNF-α. Today procalcitonin is considered to be one of the earliest and most specific markers of sepsis. Areas of investigation: Sepsis, Bacterial infection, Septic shock, Inflammation.

References to Summary

References to Procalcitonin

  • Arkader R, Troster EJ, Lopes MR, Junior RR, Carcillo JA, Leone C, Okay TS. Procalcitonin does discriminate between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Feb;91 (2):117-20
  • Carrol ED, Thomson AP, Hart CA. Procalcitonin as a marker of sepsis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002 Jul;20 (1):1-9
  • Dumea R, Siriopol D, Hogas S, Mititiuc I, Covic A. Procalcitonin: diagnostic value in systemic infections in chronic kidney disease or renal transplant patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014 Feb;46 (2):461-8
  • Floras AN, Holowaychuk MK, Hodgins DC, Marr HS, Birkenheuer A, Sharif S, Bersenas AM, Bienzle D. Investigation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of canine procalcitonin. J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Mar-Apr;28 (2):599-602
  • Giunti M, Peli A, Battilani M, Zacchini S, Militerno G, Otto CM. Evaluation of CALC-I gene (CALCA) expression in tissues of dogs with signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Ant. 2010 Oct;20 (5):523-7
  • Harbarth S, Holeckova K, Froidevaux C, Pittet D, Ricou B, Grau GE, Vadas L, Pugin J. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in critically ill patients admitted with suspected sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Aug 1;164 (3):396-402
  • Kang YA, Kwon SY, Yoon HI, Lee JH, Lee CT. Role of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in differentiation of tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia. Korean J Intern Med. 2009 Dec;24 (4):337-42
  • Kuzi S, Aroch I, Peleg K, Karnieli O, Klement E, Dank G. Canine procalcitonin messenger RNA expression. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008 Sep;20 (5):629-33
  • Lee H. Procalcitonin as a biomarker of infectious diseases. Korean J Intern Med. 2013 May;28 (3):285-91
  • Lee JY, Hwang SJ, Shim JW, Jung HL, Park MS, Woo HY, Shim JY. Clinical significance of serum procalcitonin in patients with community-acquired lobar pneumonia. Korean J Lab Med. 2010 Aug;30 (4):406-13
  • Maruna P, Nedelnikova K, Gurlich R. Physiology and genetics of procalcitonin. Physiol Res. 2000;49 Suppl 1:S57-61
  • Meisner M. Update on procalcitonin measurements. Ann Lab Med. 2014 Jul;34 (4):263-73
  • Nanda N, Juthani-Mehta M. Novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection-a systematic review. Biomark Insights. 2009;4:111-21
  • Pecile P, Miorin E, Romanello C, Falleti E, Valent F, Giacomuzzi F, Tenore A. Procalcitonin: a marker of severity of acute pyelonephritis among children. Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114 (2):e249-54
  • Pourakbari B, Mamishi S, Zafari J, Khairkhah H, Ashtiani MH, Abedini M, Afsharpaiman S, Rad SS. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010 May-Jun;14 (3):252-5
  • Sand M, Trullen XV, Bechara FG, Pala XF, Sand D, Landgrafe G, Mann B. A prospective bicenter study investigating the diagnostic value of procalcitonin in patients with acute appendicitis. Eur Surg Res. 2009;43 (3):291-7
  • Schneider HG, Lam QT. Procalcitonin for the clinical laboratory: a review. Pathology. 2007 Aug;39 (4):383-90
  • Schuetz P, Albrich W, Mueller B. Procalcitonin for diagnosis of infection and guide to antibiotic decisions: past, present and future. BMC Med. 2011;9:107
  • Schultz MJ, Determann RM. PCT and sTREM-1: the markers of infection in critically ill patients?. Med Sci Monit. 2008 Dec;14 (12):RA241-7
  • Smolkin V, Koren A, Raz R, Colodner R, Sakran W, Halevy R. Procalcitonin as a marker of acute pyelonephritis in infants and children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002 Jun;17 (6):409-12
  • Summah H, Qu JM. Biomarkers: a definite plus in pneumonia. Mediators Inflamm. 2009;2009:675753
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