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Total Prorenin/Renin Human ELISA

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Product: Size:
New: RD191167200R (regulatory status: RUO) 96 wells (1 kit)
Files: Datasheet PDF (RUO)MSDS (RUO) Prorenin on pubmed

Product details


Summary

Prorenin is an enzymatically inactive precursor of renin with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. Renin is the rate-limiting enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which primarily acts to control blood pressure and sodium balance. RAAS activity is also involved in angiogenesis, cellular growth, fibrosis, reproduction, inflammation, immunity, intracellular redox balance and antidiuretic hormone production. The active enzyme renin is a specific aspartyl protease responsible for cleaving angiotensinogen produced in liver into angiotensin I which is further converted into active angiotensin II in the vascular epithelium of the lung. Prorenin, in contrast to renin, is synthesized not only in the juxtaglomerular cells but also, to a lesser extent, in other organs, including the reproductive organs, eye and adrenal gland. Prorenin is secreted from these tissues into blood constitutively and its level in the circulation is about 10 times higher than that of mature renin. Prorenin is inactive because the prosegment region with 43 amino acid residues covers the active site of renin. Activation of prorenin can occur in two ways. One way is by proteolytic cleavage of the prosegment in renal cells and the second way is by non-proteolytic activation when the prosegment is unfolded from the enzymatic cleft, thus allowing intact prorenin to become catalytically active. This second process occurs under acidic pH and low temperature or after binding of prorenin to the renin receptor. The (pro)renin receptor is expressed in many organs, for example: kidney, heart, brain, eye, adipose tissue and vascular smooth muscle cells, thus, it may help to accumulate renin and prorenin locally and activate tissue-specific RAS. As plasma prorenin level is higher than that of renin, it suggests that prorenin may have a major role in tissue-specific local RAS activation. Unexpectedly, renin-prorenin binding to the (pro)renin receptor also activates intracellular signaling pathways in an angiotensin-independent manner and affects contractility, hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis. Stimulation of (pro)renin receptors has been reported to be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy, atherosclerosis, cardiac injury and vascular damage. Absolute levels of plasma prorenin vary with physiological changes and under pathological conditions. Although plasma prorenin can be derived from both renal and extrarenal sources, the kidney is the major source of plasma prorenin. Prorenin has also been identified in urine and amniotic fluid. In general, in normal subjects in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or in pregnancy, prorenin decreases after nephrectomy and chronic volume expansion and increases with chronic volume depletion. On the other hand, low serum prorenin levels in the third trimester were significantly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Elevated plasma prorenin levels are commonly found in patients with diabetes mellitus (type I and II) and have been implicated as a potential marker of nephropathy and retinopathy. It has been shown that males with a high serum prorenin level tended to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR) earlier and more frequently than males with a low prorenin level. However, there was no difference in the development of DR between high and low prorenin level groups in females. A recent study reported that higher plasma prorenin concentration plays a role in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and patients with high plasma prorenin concentration frequently suffered from CAD.

Areas of investigation: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Disease

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 3.5 hours
  • The kit measures prorenin and renin in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin), urine and amniotic fluid
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Standard is recombinant protein based
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Blood pressure regulation and NO metabolism, Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Renal disease


Assay format

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Amniotic fluid, Plasma-Citrate, Plasma-EDTA, Plasma-Heparin, Serum, Urine

Sample requirements

50 µl/well

Storage/Shipping

Store the complete kit at 2 8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration range

25–1600 pg/ml

Limit of detection

6 pg/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run, n=8)

CV= 5%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run, n=6)

CV= 6%

Spiking Recovery

100.4%

Dilution Linearity

96.2%


References to summary

  • Batenburg WW, Danser AH. (Pro)renin and its receptors: pathophysiological implications. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Aug 01;123 (3):121-33
  • Danser AH. Prorenin: back into the arena. Hypertension. 2006 May;47 (5):824-6
  • Danser AH, Derkx FH, Schalekamp MA, Hense HW, Riegger GA, Schunkert H. Determinants of interindividual variation of renin and prorenin concentrations: evidence for a sexual dimorphism of (pro)renin levels in humans. J Hypertens. 1998 Jun;16 (6):853-62
  • Hsueh WA, Baxter JD. Human prorenin. Hypertension. 1991 Apr;17 (4):469-77
  • Ichihara A, Sakoda M, Kurauchi-Mito A, Kaneshiro Y, Itoh H. Renin, prorenin and the kidney: a new chapter in an old saga. J Nephrol. 2009 May-Jun;22 (3):306-11
  • Jan Danser AH, Batenburg WW, van Esch JH. Prorenin and the (pro)renin receptor--an update. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 May;22 (5):1288-92
  • Luetscher JA, Kraemer FB, Wilson DM, Schwartz HC, Bryer-Ash M. Increased plasma inactive renin in diabetes mellitus. A marker of microvascular complications. N Engl J Med. 1985 May 30;312 (22):1412-7
  • Mikami Y, Narita T, Takai Y, Baba K, Seki H, Matsuoka K. The progression of serum prorenin concentration during pregnancy. J Hypertens . 2014;3 (4)
  • Paul M, Poyan Mehr A, Kreutz R. Physiology of local renin-angiotensin systems. Physiol Rev. 2006 Jul;86 (3):747-803
  • Pringle KG, Wang Y, Lumbers ER. The synthesis, secretion and uptake of prorenin in human amnion. Physiol Rep. 2015 Apr;3 (4)
  • Schalekamp MA, Derkx FH, Deinum J, Danser AJ. Newly developed renin and prorenin assays and the clinical evaluation of renin inhibitors. J Hypertens. 2008 May;26 (5):928-37
  • Schmieder RE. The potential role of prorenin in diabetic nephropathy. J Hypertens. 2007 Jul;25 (7):1323-6
  • Shi P, Grobe JL, Desland FA, Zhou G, Shen XZ, Shan Z, Liu M, Raizada MK, Sumners C. Direct pro-inflammatory effects of prorenin on microglia. PLoS One. 2014;9 (10):e92937
  • Stankovic AR, Fisher ND, Hollenberg NK. Prorenin and angiotensin-dependent renal vasoconstriction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Dec;17 (12):3293-9
  • Toffelmire EB, Slater K, Corvol P, Menard J, Schambelan M. Response of plasma prorenin and active renin to chronic and acute alterations of renin secretion in normal humans. Studies using a direct immunoradiometric assay. J Clin Invest. 1989 Feb;83 (2):679-87
  • Yokota H, Mori F, Kai K, Nagaoka T, Izumi N, Takahashi A, Hikichi T, Yoshida A, Suzuki F, Ishida Y. Serum prorenin levels and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes: new method to measure serum level of prorenin using antibody activating direct kinetic assay. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jul;89 (7):871-3
  • Yokota H, Nagaoka T, Tani T, Takahashi A, Sato E, Kato Y, Yoshida A. Higher levels of prorenin predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron. 2011 Sep;12 (3):290-4
  • Yoshida G, Kawasaki M, Murata I, Hayakawa Y, Aoyama T, Miyazaki N, Yamada Y, Nishigaki K, Arai Y, Suzuki F, Minatoguchi S. Higher plasma prorenin concentration plays a role in the development of coronary artery disease. Biomark Res. 2015;3:18


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