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Prolactin-Inducible Protein Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, Prolactin-induced protein, Secretory actin-binding protein, GCDFP15, GPIP4, SABP, GP17, PIP
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD191304100R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

Applications

Urine, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Milk, Seminal plasma, Plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin)

Sample Requirements

Plasma: 35 µl/well
Urine: 20 µl/well
Breast milk, BALF, Seminal plasma: 5 µl/well

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box)

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

1.57–100 ng/ml

Limit of Detection

0.85 ng/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 3.8 %

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 6; CV = 12.2 %

Spiking Recovery

Plasma (EDTA): 92.6 %

Dilutation Linearity

Plasma (EDTA): 105.7 % Urine: 100.7 %
Breast milk: 109.4 %
Seminal plasma: 103.5 %
BALF: 115.4 %

Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 3 hours
  • The kit measures prolactin inducible protein in human plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin), seminal plasma (SP), breast milk (BM), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and urine
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Standard is purified human native protein
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Oncology, Reproduction

Summary

Prolactin inducible protein (PIP) also known as gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), extra-parotid glycoprotein (EP-GP), gp17 seminal actin-binding protein (SABP) or BRST2 is a 17-kDa single polypeptide chain that in humans is encoded by the PIP gene located on chromosome 7.
The PIP gene is expressed in most organs that contribute to human body fluids. It was first identified as a major component of breast cyst fluid, it is also present in human milk, saliva, amniotic fluid, seminal plasma, and particularly those with apocrine and exocrine organs. Due to posttranslational modification and different glycan content PIP exists in many isoforms with different molecular mass and isoelectric points. PIP may exist as a dimer or tetramer in different fluids. The protein forms dimers in saliva and tetramers in breast cyst fluid and human seminal fluid.
PIP is a secreted protein and it is upregulated by prolactin and androgens and downregulated by estrogen. PIP binds to many proteins such as fibrinogen, actin, keratin, myosin, tropomyosin and zinc a2-glycoprotein (ZAG). PIP has strong affinity for the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G (IgG), and it could bind with antisperm antibody (ASA), which acts to protect spermatozoa from the damage by IgG. PIP also has high affinity for CD4-TCR (cluster of differentiation – T cell receptor), which modulates the immune response during the viral infection.
It was reported the isolation of native human serum albumin (HSA)–PIP complex from human seminal plasma. Albumin has been known to preserve the motility of sperm, thus the native HSA–PIP complex in human seminal plasma may suggest another important role of PIP, which can directly be correlated with male fertility/infertility. It was also shown that expression of PIP is down-regulated in azoospermia.
In a larger study, immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of PIP in 72% of breast carcinoma samples. PIP protein expression was also used in the differential diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer versus other primary origin carcinomas. The presence of PIP protein in the serum of some breast cancer patients has been detected by Western blot analysis and circulating anti-PIP antibodies have been identified in sera of patients with both malignant and benign breast disease. PIP is also considered a prognostic biomarker for prostate carcinoma, although its role in prostate tumor progression is not yet fully established. The comparison
between PIP expression in normal prostate tissues and adenocarcinoma of the prostate showed that benign prostate epithelium expresses PIP at low levels, whereas, PIP is overexpressed in carcinomas of the prostate, indicating its role in tumor progression. Apart from breast and prostate cancers the overexpression of PIP has also been observed in other carcinomas (ovary, colon, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma)

References to Summary

References to Prolactin-Inducible Protein

  • Chiu WW, Chamley LW. Human seminal plasma prolactin-inducible protein is an immunoglobulin G-binding protein. J Reprod Immunol. 2003 Dec;60 (2):97-111
  • Clark JW, Snell L, Shiu RP, Orr FW, Maitre N, Vary CP, Cole DJ, Watson PH. The potential role for prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) as a marker of human breast cancer micrometastasis. Br J Cancer. 1999 Nov;81 (6):1002-8
  • Debily MA, Marhomy SE, Boulanger V, Eveno E, Mariage-Samson R, Camarca A, Auffray C, Piatier-Tonneau D, Imbeaud S. A functional and regulatory network associated with PIP expression in human breast cancer. PLoS One. 2009;4 (3):e4696
  • Hassan MI, Bilgrami S, Kumar V, Singh N, Yadav S, Kaur P, Singh TP. Crystal structure of the novel complex formed between zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) from human seminal plasma. J Mol Biol. 2008 Dec 19;384 (3):663-72
  • Hassan MI, Kumar V, Singh TP, Yadav S. Purification and characterization of zinc alpha2-glycoprotein-prolactin inducible protein complex from human seminal plasma. J Sep Sci. 2008 Jul;31 (12):2318-24
  • Hassan MI, Waheed A, Yadav S, Singh TP, Ahmad F. Prolactin inducible protein in cancer, fertility and immunoregulation: structure, function and its clinical implications. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Feb;66 (3):447-59
  • Kitano T, Tian W, Umetsu K, Yuasa I, Yamazaki K, Saitou N, Osawa M. Origin and evolution of gene for prolactin-induced protein. Gene. 2006 Nov 15;383:64-70
  • Kumar S, Tomar AK, Singh S, Saraswat M, Singh S, Singh TP, Yadav S. Human serum albumin as a new interacting partner of prolactin inducible protein in human seminal plasma. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 Mar 1;50 (2):317-22
  • Kumar V, Hassan MI, Kashav T, Singh TP, Yadav S. Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma: purification and characterization. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008 Dec;75 (12):1767-74
  • Murphy LC, Tsuyuki D, Myal Y, Shiu RP. Isolation and sequencing of a cDNA clone for a prolactin-inducible protein (PIP). Regulation of PIP gene expression in the human breast cancer cell line, T-47D. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 5;262 (31):15236-41
  • Myal Y, Robinson DB, Iwasiow B, Tsuyuki D, Wong P, Shiu RP. The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCDFP-15) gene: cloning, structure and regulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991 Sep;80 (1-3):165-75
  • Naderi A, Meyer M. Prolactin-induced protein mediates cell invasion and regulates integrin signaling in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14 (4):R111
  • Osawa M, Seto Y, Yukawa N, Saito T, Takeichi S. A 20-kDa protein in human seminal plasma that is identical to gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and prolactin-inducible protein. Arch Androl. 1996 Jan-Feb;36 (1):29-39
  • Schaller J, Akiyama K, Kimura H, Hess D, Affolter M, Rickli EE. Primary structure of a new actin-binding protein from human seminal plasma. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Mar 28;196 (3):743-50
  • Shiu RP, Iwasiow BM. Prolactin-inducible proteins in human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1985 Sep 15;260 (20):11307-13
  • Tian W, Osawa M, Horiuchi H, Tomita Y. Expression of the prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCDFP15) gene in benign epithelium and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Sci. 2004 Jun;95 (6):491-5
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