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Prostate Cancer Panel Human

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Species:Human
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RD11460100CS 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Sample Requirements

20 µl/well

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box)

Calibration Range

PSP94: 0.02 – 16 ng/ml
Clusterin: 0.16 – 160 ng/ml

Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The kit consists of 2 assays
  • The Prostate Cancer Assay 1 measures human PSP94 in serum and plasma
  • The Prostate Cancer Assay 2 measures human Clusterin in serum and plasma
  • Additional sample types may be suitable but have not been validated
  • The total assay time is less than 1.5 hours
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Oncology

Summary

Prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94), also known as β-microseminoprotein or prostatic inhibin-like protein, is a small, nonglycosylated peptide consisting of 94 amino acids with molecular mass 10.7 kDa, and is one of the major secretory proteins of the prostate glands. PSP94 is synthesized as a preprotein of 114 amino acid residues, from which a 20- residue signal peptide is cleaved off to form the mature protein.
PSP94 along with PSA (Prostate-specific Antigen) and PAP (Prostate Acid Phosphatase) are the three most abundant proteins in seminal fluid. As with other prostate-secreted proteins, PSP94 can leak into the blood upon benign or malignant prostate epithelial disruption and can be measured within serum. PSP94 is not solely synthesized by the prostate epithelium, as the protein can also be detected in nonreproductive organs such as in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, of which, the gastric mucosa shows particularly high expression. Accordingly, PSP94 can be measured in serum of both men and women, but the serum levels in women were found to be around two-thirds of those measured in men. PSP94 forms high-affinity complexes with two related Cys-rich proteins: PSP94-binding protein in blood plasma and cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in semen.
Evidence suggest that PSP94 has systemic functions including growth regulation and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and regulation of calcium levels during hypercalcemia secondary to malignancy. Several studies have demonstrated a progressive decrease in PSP94 expression as prostate cancer progresses from a hormone-dependent to a hormone-independent state with complete lack of PSP94 production in highly advanced metastatic prostate cancer. This differential expression could make PSP94 a prognostic clinical marker for prostate cancer and could help distinguish patients with aggressive forms of prostate cancer. A recent study demonstrated a close correlation between PSP94 in serum and seminal plasma, supporting the potential use of PSP94 as a serum marker of prostate secretory function as well.

Clusterin (Apolippoprotein J; SP-40,40; TRPM-2; SGP-2; pADHC-9; CLJ; T64; GP III; XIP8) is
a highly conserved disulfide-linked secreted heterodimeric glycoprotein of 75-80 kDa but truncated forms targeted to nucleus have also been identified.
The protein is constitutively secreted by a number of cell types including epithelial and neuronal cells and is a major protein in physiological fluids including plasma, milk, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and semen. Due to its wide tissue distribution many diverse physiological functions have been attributed to clusterin including sperm maturation, membrane recycling, lipid transportation, tissue remodeling, complement inhibition and cell-cell or cell-substratum
interactions. Moreover, it was propose, that clusterin functions is as an extra cellular chaperon that stabilizes stressed proteins in a folding-competent state and protein has also been implicated in programmed cell death. Another defining prominent of clusterin is its induction in many severe physiological disturbances states including kidney degenerative diseases, prostate and vesicle carcinogenesis, ovarian cancer and several neurodegenerative conditions
(Alzheimer’s disease).
Recent study demonstrate, that serum clusterin level increases significantly in diabetic type II patients and in patients with developing coronary heart disease, or myocardial infarction. These date raise the possibility that elevated clusterin levels in serum may represent a strong
indication of vascular damage.
In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was found reduced serum clusterin levels
that correlated inversely with disease activity. Lowered clusterin levels could be involved in the
pathogeneses of SLE on account of decreased protective effects.
Another interesting observations obtain in rat model suggest that measurement of urinary clusterin levels may be a useful clinical valuable marker for the severity of renal tubular damage. Furthermore, urinary clusterin may also help to differentiate between tubular and glomerular forms of proteinuria.

Clinical use and areas of investigation :

  • Prostate cancer
  • Respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
  • Coronary heart diseases
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Kidney degenerative disease
  • Renal tubular damage
Summary References (20)

References to Prostate Cancer Panel

  • Abrahamsson PA, Andersson C, Bjork T, Fernlund P, Lilja H, Murne A, Weiber H. Radioimmunoassay of beta-microseminoprotein, a prostatic-secreted protein present in sera of both men and women. Clin Chem. 1989 Jul;35 (7):1497-503
  • Bjartell AS, Al-Ahmadie H, Serio AM, Eastham JA, Eggener SE, Fine SW, Udby L, Gerald WL, Vickers AJ, Lilja H, Reuter VE, Scardino PT. Association of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 and beta-microseminoprotein with outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 15;13 (14):4130-8
  • Chen X, Halberg RB, Ehrhardt WM, Torrealba J, Dove WF. Clusterin as a biomarker in murine and human intestinal neoplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100 (16):9530-5
  • Choi-Miura NH, Oda T. Relationship between multifunctional protein "clusterin" and Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Aging. 1996 Sep-Oct;17 (5):717-22
  • Ghiggeri GM, Bruschi M, Candiano G, Rastaldi MP, Scolari F, Passerini P, Musante L, Pertica N, Caridi G, Ferrario F, Perfumo F, Ponticelli C. Depletion of clusterin in renal diseases causing nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2002 Dec;62 (6):2184-94
  • Girton RA, Sundin DP, Rosenberg ME. Clusterin protects renal tubular epithelial cells from gentamicin-mediated cytotoxicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Apr;282 (4):F703-9
  • Hidaka S, Kranzlin B, Gretz N, Witzgall R. Urinary clusterin levels in the rat correlate with the severity of tubular damage and may help to differentiate between glomerular and tubular injuries. Cell Tissue Res. 2002 Dec;310 (3):289-96
  • Ishii A, Sakai Y, Nakamura A. Molecular pathological evaluation of clusterin in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction as a possible biomarker of nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Apr;35 (3):376-82
  • Jones SE, Jomary C. Clusterin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002 May;34 (5):427-31
  • Kim BM, Kim SY, Lee S, Shin YJ, Min BH, Bendayan M, Park IS. Clusterin induces differentiation of pancreatic duct cells into insulin-secreting cells. Diabetologia. 2006 Feb;49 (2):311-20
  • Krijnen PA, Cillessen SA, Manoe R, Muller A, Visser CA, Meijer CJ, Musters RJ, Hack CE, Aarden LA, Niessen HW. Clusterin: a protective mediator for ischemic cardiomyocytes?. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physio. 2005 Nov;289 (5):H2193-202
  • Kruger S, Mahnken A, Kausch I, Feller AC. Value of clusterin immunoreactivity as a predictive factor in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma. Urology. 2006 Jan;67 (1):105-9
  • Morrissey C, Lakins J, Moquin A, Hussain M, Tenniswood M. An antigen capture assay for the measurement of serum clusterin concentrations. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2001 Mar 28;48 (1):13-21
  • Nam RK, Reeves JR, Toi A, Dulude H, Trachtenberg J, Emami M, Daigneault L, Panchal C, Sugar L, Jewett MA, Narod SA. A novel serum marker, total prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids, improves prostate cancer detection and helps identify high grade cancers at diagnosis. J Urol. 2006 Apr;175 (4):1291-7
  • Newkirk MM, Apostolakos P, Neville C, Fortin PR. Systemic lupus erythematosus, a disease associated with low levels of clusterin/apoJ, an antiinflammatory protein. J Rheumatol. 1999 Mar;26 (3):597-603
  • Patel NV, Wei M, Wong A, Finch CE, Morgan TE. Progressive changes in regulation of apolipoproteins E and J in glial cultures during postnatal development and aging. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Nov 23;371 (2-3):199-204
  • Reeves JR, Dulude H, Panchal C, Daigneault L, Ramnani DM. Prognostic value of prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids and its binding protein after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;12 (20 Pt 1):6018-22
  • Rodriguez-Pineiro AM, de la Cadena MP, Lopez-Saco A, Rodriguez-Berrocal FJ. Differential expression of serum clusterin isoforms in colorectal cancer. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Sep;5 (9):1647-57
  • Schroder FH. Prostate specific antigen and other markers for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2006 Apr;175 (4):1199-200
  • Stoop MP, Dekker LJ, Titulaer MK, Burgers PC, Sillevis Smitt PA, Luider TM, Hintzen R
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