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Manufactured by BioVendor

suPAR Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Soluble Plasminogen Aactivator Urokinase Receptor, Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor, Soluble uPAR, sPLAUR
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD191408200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Serum, Plasma-EDTA, Plasma-Heparin, Plasma-Citrate, Urine

Sample Requirements

10 µl/well

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

7.8–500 pg/ml

Limit of Detection

5.1 pg/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 5.3 %

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 6; CV = 5.9 %

Spiking Recovery

Serum: 98.4 %
Urine: 94.4 %

Dilution Linearity

Serum: 104.4 %
Urine: 101.7 %

Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 3,5 hours
  • The kit measures human suPAR in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin) and urine
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Standard is recombinant protein based
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Renal disease

Summary

The urokinase-type plasminogen activator system consists of a protease, a receptor (uPAR) and inhibitors. uPAR was initially characterized as a cofactor for plasminogen activation by its ligand urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA or urokinase). Structurally, uPAR is a glycosylphospha­tidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein encoded by PLAUR gene. It consists of three homologous domains (DI, DII and DIII), each of approximately 90 amino acids. The molecular mass of non-glycosylated uPAR is approximately 35 kDa, whereas glycosylated uPAR has a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa. Removal of the GPI anchor by phospholipases or extracellular proteolytic cleavage yields a soluble form – soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Cleavage of uPAR from the cell can occur both at the GPI-anchor and at the linker region between DI and DII. Thus, suPAR is a circulating protein ranging from 20 to 50 kDa, depending on the degree of glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage. The uPAR has been shown to associate with many signalling molecules and to mediate signal transduction. Chemotaxis-inducing molecules upregulate uPAR in different cell types, including neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, endothelial cells and malignant cells. uPAR promotes the migration and adhesion of leucocytes by binding to β-integrins. Moreover, uPAR has a pivotal role in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and fibrinolysis. After cleavage from the cell surface, soluble uPAR can be measured in the blood and other organic fluids such as urine, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In such matrices suPAR, similarly to anchored uPAR, also takes part in various immunological functions, including cell adhesion, migration, chemotaxis, proteolysis, immune activation, tissue remodelling, cell invasion and signal transduction. Elevated levels of suPAR in circulation are considered to be a marker for activation of immune and inflammatory systems. In the acute setting, elevated levels of suPAR have been proposed to be predictive for disease severity in bacteraemia, human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), bacterial meningitis, active pulmonary tuberculosis, ventilator-associated pneumonia with sepsis, and in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with or without sepsis. The suPAR was also discovered as a cause of chronic renal disease focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Described in details, suPAR levels were investigated as a predictor of disease severity and mortality in 132 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and β-hemolytic streptococcae or Escherichia coli. The best mortality predictive cut-off plasma level was 11 ng/ml; the sensitivity and specificity of suPAR for fatal disease was 83% and 76%, respectively. It was found that HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy have an increased risk of various metabolic disorders, which may involve low-grade inflammation and other immunological perturbations. Plasma suPAR, which has been established as a marker of the immunological status of HIV-infected patients, may correlate with important features of dysmetabolism in such patients. From the study performed with CSF samples of 545 patients was found that suPAR, age and type of infection, all add value in predicting mortality among patients with initial diagnosis of meningitis. The diagnostic value of suPAR to identify patients with severe sepsis seems to be similar to that of procalcitonin or interleukin-6. More importantly, suPAR levels was found to be strong predictors of 28-day, 90-day and even 1-year case fatality and allowed a better risk stratification compared to classical inflammatory markers such as procalcitonin, interleukin-6 or C-reactive protein. It has recently been suggested that suPAR has a role in the pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that enhanced circulating su

Summary References (15)

References to suPAR

  • Andersen O, Eugen-Olsen J, Kofoed K, Iversen J, Haugaard SB. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Med Virol. 2008 Feb;80 (2):209-16
  • Donadello K, Scolletta S, Covajes C, Vincent JL. suPAR as a prognostic biomarker in sepsis. BMC Med. 2012;10:2
  • Fernebro E, Madsen RR, Ferno M, Brunner N, Bendahl P, Christensen IJ, Johnson A, Nilbert M. Prognostic importance of the soluble plasminogen activator receptor, suPAR, in plasma from rectal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2001 Mar;37 (4):486-91
  • Fidan E, Mentese A, Ozdemir F, Deger O, Kavgaci H, Caner Karahan S, Aydin F. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of CA IX and suPAR in gastric cancer. Med Oncol. 2013 Jun;30 (2):540
  • Haugaard SB, Andersen O, Hansen TW, Eugen-Olsen J, Linneberg A, Madsbad S, Olsen MH, Jorgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Jeppesen J. The immune marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with new-onset diabetes in non-smoking women and men. Diabet Med. 2012 Apr;29 (4):479-87
  • Heraclides A, Jensen TM, Rasmussen SS, Eugen-Olsen J, Haugaard SB, Borch-Johnsen K, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Witte DR. The pro-inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among overweight but not obese individuals with impaired glucose regulation: effect modification by smoking and body weight status. Diabetologia. 2013 Jul;56 (7):1542-6
  • Huttunen R, Syrjanen J, Vuento R, Hurme M, Huhtala H, Laine J, Pessi T, Aittoniemi J. Plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor as a predictor of disease severity and case fatality in patients with bacteraemia: a prospective cohort study. J Intern Med. 2011 Jul;270 (1):32-40
  • Jalkanen V, Yang R, Linko R, Huhtala H, Okkonen M, Varpula T, Pettila V, Tenhunen J. SuPAR and PAI-1 in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med. 2013 Mar;39 (3):489-96
  • Koch A, Tacke F. Risk stratification and triage in the emergency department: has this become 'suPAR' easy?. J Intern Med. 2012 Sep;272 (3):243-6
  • Maas RJ, Deegens JK, Wetzels JF. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013 Jul;28 (7):1041-8
  • Persson M, Engstrom G, Bjorkbacka H, Hedblad B. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in plasma is associated with incidence of CVD. Results from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb;220 (2):502-5
  • Tzanakaki G, Paparoupa M, Kyprianou M, Barbouni A, Eugen-Olsen J, Kourea-Kremastinou J. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Di. 2012 Jun;31 (6):1157-62
  • Uusitalo-Seppala R, Huttunen R, Tarkka M, Aittoniemi J, Koskinen P, Leino A, Vahlberg T, Rintala EM. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in patients with suspected infection in the emergency room: a prospective cohort study. J Intern Med. 2012 Sep;272 (3):247-56
  • Wei C, El Hindi S, Li J, Fornoni A, Goes N, Sageshima J, Maiguel D, Karumanchi SA, Yap HK, Saleem M, Zhang Q, Nikolic B, Chaudhuri A, Daftarian P, Salido E, Torres A, Salifu M, Sarwal MM, Schaefer F, Morath C, Schwenger V, Zeier M, Gupta V, Roth D, Rastaldi MP, Burke G, Ruiz P, Reiser J. Circulating urokinase receptor as a cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Med. 2011 Aug;17 (8):952-60
  • Wei C, Trachtman H, Li J, Dong C, Friedman AL, Gassman JJ, McMahan JL, Radeva M, Heil KM, Trautmann A, Anarat A, Emre S, Ghiggeri GM, Ozaltin F, Haffner D, Gipson DS, Kaskel F, Fischer DC, Schaefer F, Reiser J. Circulating suPAR in two cohorts of primary FSGS. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Dec;23 (12):2051-9
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