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Annexin A2 (Annexin II, Annexin-2, Calpactin I heavy chain, Calpactin-1 heavy chain, Chromobindin-8, Lipocortin II, Placental anticoagulant protein IV, PAP-IV, Protein I, p36, ANX2, ANX2L4, CAL1H, LPC2D)

Annexin A2 is a 36-kDa protein produced by endothelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, trophoblast cells, and some tumor cells and exists both free in the cytoplasm and in association with intracellular and plasma membrane surfaces. Annexin A2 belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-regulated phospholipid binding proteins, which are expressed in plants, animals, and protists throughout the phylogenetic tree. Annexins possess a series of unique 70 amino acid annexin-repeat modules that form a curved disk and allow for the creation of an intercessory complex between plasma membrane and cytofilaments. Annexin A2 forms heterotetrameric complex containing the S100A10 dimer and two annexin A2 chains significantly alters the properties of this annexin in vitro and also within cells. Importantly, the annexin A2-S100A10 complex can aggregate membrane vesicles at micromolar Ca2+ levels, a property not shared with monomeric annexin A2 or, as a matter of fact, any other annexin. Annexin A2 plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption.

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