Catalase is a homotetrameric heme-containing enzyme present within the matrix of all peroxisomes. It carries out a dismutation reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is converted to water and oxygen. Human catalase has the last four amino acids (-KANL) at the extreme C-terminus for peroxisome targeting. The monomer of human catalase is 61.3 kDa in molecular size. Catalase has been implicated as an important factor in inflammation, mutagenesis, preven-tion of apoptosis, and stimulation of a wide spectrum of tumors. Loss of catalase leads to the human genetic disease, acatalasemia, or Takahara’s disease.