Dehyroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C19 steroid produced in the adrenal cortex and to a lesser extent in the gonads. DHEA serves as precursor in testesterone and estrogen synthesis. Due to the presence of a 17-oxo-group, DHEA has relatively weak androgenic activity, which has been estimated at ~10% that of testosterone. However in neonates, peripubertal children and in adult women, circulating DHEA levels may be several fold higher than testosterone concentrations, and rapid peripheral tissue conversion to more potent androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) and estrogen may occur. Moreover, DHEA has relatively low afinity for sex-hormone binding globulin. These factors may enhance the physiologic biopotency of DHEA. The physiologic role of DHEA has not been conclusively defined. A variety of in vivo and in vitro effects have been demonstrated, including antitumoral effects by provoking prevention and/ or regression in spontanous or chemically induced skin and colon cancers in rodents. A few reports have suggested low production of DHEA(S) in women at risk of or having breast cancer. Therapeutic activity of DHEA has been reported for animals with diabetes of genetic origin, obesity and cardiovascular disease. There are also effects of DHEA in immune function, lipid metabolism , cholesterol ,the nervous system, aging and in protection against virus development. The investigation of DHEA-S in saliva is not useful as there is only very limited clinical information in it. DHEA-S is a polar molecule and cannot pass freely the lipophilic membrane between blood and saliva within the salivary gland. Therefore the salivary concentration of DHEA-S is flow dependent, while the DHEA concentration is not. We highly are recommending not to measure salivary DHEA-S but DHEA instead.