Retroviral protease from HIV-1 virus is an enzyme important in the life cycle of the virus. It is expressed in the infected cells as a part of Gag-Pol polyprotein from which it is autocatalytycaly released after formation of immature viral particle. The enzyme subsequently cleaves the other parts of viral polyproteins causing the maturation of the virus. In HIV-infected patients the enzyme is a subject of intensive mutagenesis and mutants resistant to applied medcines are produced as a consequence of the seletion pressure. HIV-1 protease is active as a homodimer.