ICAM-1 is a single-chain glycoprotein with a polypeptide core of 55kD that can be expressed on non-hematopoietic cells of many lineages such as vascular endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, other epithelial cells and fibroblasts and on hematopoietic cells such as tissue macrophages, mitogen-stimulated T-lymphoblasts, germinal center B-cells and dendritic cells in tonsils, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. ICAM-1 is inducible on fibroblasts and endothelial cells by inflammatory mediators such as IL-1, TNF and IFNγ within few hours and is correlated to the infiltration of lymphocytes into inflammatory lesions. ICAM-1 seems to be the initial marker of inflammatory reactions and is expressed prior to, and to a greater extent than is HLA-DR. The role of ICAM-1 as a disease marker has been demonstrated for a number of different indications and pathological situations. ICAM-1 upregulation in allergic airway inflammation is responsible for the recruitment of activated leukocytes and the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.