Interleukin 1 (IL-1) induces synthesis of acute phase and proinflammatory proteins during infection, tissue damage, or stress, by forming a complex with interleukin 1 receptor (Il-1R) and its accessory protein. The interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP / IL-1R3) is a necessary part of the IL-1 / IL-1R complex, which initiates signalling events that result in the activation of inflammatory response.
Due to its role in mechanism of regulation of interleukin 1 responsiveness, IL-1RAcP has been suggested to be involved in various pathological states in organism.
Plasma IL-1RAcP levels are reduced in obesity, thus, plasma IL-1RacP can potentially serve as a biomarker of obesity. Blood IL-1RAcP levels are consistently low throughout the menstrual cycle of women with endometriosis, which is one of the most frequent gynecological diseases in women of reproductive age. Lower circulating levels of IL-1RAcP point to a significant impairment in the regulatory mechanisms of IL-1, which, in view of the cytokine´s crucial role in inflammation, may play a role in pathophysiology of endometriosis.
Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy with poor survival. Current treatment with chemotherapy does not target the leukemic cells specifically and is associated with severe side effects. Studies indicate, that antibodies directed to the IL-1RAcP molecule expressed on immature AML cells show strong antileukemic effects in mice transplanted with human AML cells. These studies on animal models provide evidence in support of rapid clinical development of an antibody based anti-IL-1RAcP therapy in AML.
Recently, interleukin-1ß and interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein gene polymorphisms were associated with persistent hepatitis B virus infection (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and hepatocellular carcinoma.