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Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (GLIF, MMIF, GIF, Glycosylation-inhibiting factor, MIF)

The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene, located on 22q11.2, encodes a multifunctional cytokine, MIF, which is produced by several types of cells, including epithelial cells and cells that participate in the innate and adaptive immune responses. MIF is known to mediate certain cell-mediated immune responses, immune regulation, and inflammation. Overexpression and secretion of MIF help restore macrophage cytokine production and T cell activity in response to the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids. Although first described as an immune cell product, a much higher MIF level was found in kinds of human cancer and cancer-prone inflammatory diseases, including chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In addition, many functions of MIF support its potential involvement in diabetes, such as MIF inhibits INS-1 cell proliferation. MIF is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by many cell types such as: T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrop­hages, vascular endothelia. It is also released from the pituitary which suggests that MIF is also an endocrine factor. Because of its widespread properties it is a crucial mediator of many immune and autoimmune diseases such as: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), Crohn disease, diabetes type 1, glomerulonephritis, septic shock, inflammatory lung disease and cancer.

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