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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. In humans, there are two distinct precursors of mature miR-1-3p, named miR-1-1 and miR-1-2. Genes for miR-1-1 and miR-1-2 precursors are located on chromosomes 20 a 18. Mature miR-1-3p has pivotal roles in development and physiology of muscle tissues including the heart. Changes in miR-1-3p expression lead to occurrence of many cardiac diseases. miR-1-3p is known to be involved in heart diseases such as hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias. Studies have shown that miR-1-3p is an important regulator of heart adaption after ischemia or ischemic stress. Under physiological conditions, miR-1-3p is present at very low levels in plasma. However, the level of miR-1-3p is significantly increased in myocardial infarction patients. In addition to the pathophysiological roles of miR-1-3p in cardiac diseases, many studies have also demonstrated that aberrant expression of miR-1 plays important roles in the initiation, development and metastasis of human cancers such as rhabdomyosarcoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer or prostate cancer.

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