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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

MicroRNA-100 (miR-100), located on chromosome 11 at 11q24.1, is a member of the miR-99 family. It is involved in regulating multiple cell processes, such as cell apoptosis, cell cycle, differentiation, proliferation, invasion and migration.

miR-100 was reported to enhance the chemosensitivity of various tumor cells to chemotherapeutics. miR-100–5p was the most prominent decreased miRNA in exosomes derived from lung cancer cells confer cisplatin (DDP) and the fold change of miR-100–5p in exosomes was larger than that in cells, which implied that this abnormal reverse concentration of miR-100–5p might play a vital role in communication between tumor cells. The decreased expression of miR-100 was wildly reported to be involved in drug resistance in various cancer patients. Increased hsa-mir-99b-3p expression level showed a tendency toward advanced tumor stages, and high levels of hsa-mir-100-5p expression were associated with extracapsular extension. While a high expression level of hsa-mir-99b-3p was associated with better survival, a high expression level of hsa-mir-100-5p was correlated with a poorer survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma OSCC.

Deregulation of miRNAs (hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-100-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-4324, hsa-miR-34b-5p, hsa-miR-29c-3p, hsa-miR-135a-3p, and hsa-miR-33b-3p) was determined in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) patients with aggressive phenotype compared with nonaggressive subject. Six miRNAs were associated with high risk (hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-100-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-4324, hsa-miR-34b-5p, and hsa-miR-135a-3p) and three were shown to be protective (hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-29c-3p, and hsa-miR-33b-3p).

Five upregulated miRNAs (miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-885-5p, miR-100-5p and miR-148a-3p) in CHB, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are potential biomarkers for chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Other studies showed that low expressions of miR-100-5p and miR-148a-3p were associated with gross vascular invasion (VI) and poor survival of patients after hepatic resection for HCC.

Gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) may predispose to later onset of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases. PE and/or FGR with abnormal Doppler parameters demonstrated up-regulation of miR-100-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-133a-3p, and miR-145-5p. The combination screening was superior over using individual microRNAs for patients with GH, PE regardless of the severity of the disease, severe PE and early PE. A cardiovascular risk at patients with late PE, PE and/or FGR with abnormal Doppler parameters was identified more accurately using the single microRNA only.

It was found that miR-100 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients could serve as one of the reliable biomarkers to detect AD. MiR-99b-5p/100-5p has been found to promote cell apoptosis with the Amyloid β (Aβ) treatment. Dynamic change of miR-99b-5p/100-5p levels during Aβ-associated pathologies might be attributed to Aβ-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress).

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