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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

miR-145-5p is considered a member of the p53-tumor suppressor network and has been found to act as a post-transcriptional regulator of many cancer-related genes. Deregulations of miR-145-5p were observed in various types of human cancer including renal cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, glioblastoma and prostate cancer.

miR-145-5p is also involved in pathology of cardiovascular disease. miR-145-5p plasma levels were reported to be significantly lower in patients with acute myocardial infarction compared to healthy control group. Increased plasma levels of miR-145-5p were found in population with genetic predisposition to familiar dilated cardiomyopathy.

miR-145-5p is associated also with cerebral ischemia, where expression was significally higher in ischemic stroke patients when compare to control subjects.

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