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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

High expressed miR-195-5p could promote cardiac hypertrophy, whereas the suppression of miR-195-5p prevented hypertrophy of H9c2 cardiomyocytes under angiotensin II treatment. It was observed that miR-195-5p promotes cardiac hypertrophy via targeting MFN2 and FBXW7. miR-195-5p was significantly upregulated in the blood of Deep vein thrombosis patients. miR-195-5p downregulation promoted cell viability and inhibited the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

The expression of miR-195-5p was decreased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Downregulation of miR-195-5p was significantly associated with TNM stage, tumor size and lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, the expression of miR-195-5p was higher in human normal lung cell lines than in NSCLC cells. Overexpression of miR-195-5p increased cell apoptotic rate of A549 cell lines, with the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax up-regulated and that of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 down-regulated. Therefore miR-195-5p could be used as a potential prognostic predictor and tumor suppressor in NSCLC. MiR-195-5p/-218-5p displayed a negative correlation with baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 expression, and acted as independent prognostic factors of poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. miR-195-5p plays an important anticancer role in human colorectal cancer (CRC) progression as it was significantly downregulated in CRC tissues. Patients with a low level of miR-195-5p had significantly shortened overall survival. Altered miR-195-5p in colon cancer cells led to distinct changes of proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It was observed that the gene GDPD5 is an effector of chemoresistance and metastasis in CRC. miR-195-5p is also a potent suppressor of GDPD5 and that, as such, it significantly increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis in chemoresistant CRC cells. hTERT gene plays an important role in melanoma. hTERT expression level was inversely correlated with miR-497-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-455-3p. Overexpression of miR-497-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-455-3p inhibited A375 cell proliferation, migration and invasion, arrested the cell cycle, induced cell apoptosis and decreased hTERT expression. miR-497-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-455-3p were significantly downregulated, while hTERT was upregulated in melanoma tissues. MiR-497-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-455-3p act as tumor suppressors by targeting hTERT in melanoma A375 cells.

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