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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

miR-197 represents a molecule that is associated with a wide range of pathologic conditions ranging from type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, preeclampsia, hepatitis B virus infection to major human malignancies such as lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer or cervical carcinoma. miR-197 is distinctively expressed in diffuse large B cell lymphoma and may play a role of a biomarker with potential therapeutic implications in this disease. miR 197 expression was also demonstrated to be considerably downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Its low expression level was associated with increased tumour size, invasive depth, tumour node metastasis staging and lymph node metastasis, whereas high expression of miR 197 inhibited tumour cell proliferation and invasion in vitro.

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