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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. miR-24 is conserved in various species, and is clustered with miR-23 and miR-27 on the human chromosomes 9 and 19. miR-24-3p is extensively expressed in various tissues and plays an important role in various physiological or pathological conditions, such as oral cancers, prostate cancer, hyperglycemia, multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. Expression of miR-24-3p was reported to be elevated in breast cancer patients with metastasis, both in plasma and breast cancer tissue. miR-24-3p expression level was significantly increased in human as well as rat cardiac tissue after geart failure. In heart failure animal models, abnormally high expression of miR-24 led to decreased efficiency of excitation-contraction. miR-24-3p is a key mediator promoting cardiac hypertrophy; one of the potential mechanisms is driving cells in G0/G1 phase into S phase.

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