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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

miR-423 gene is located in frequently amplified region of the chromosome 17q11.2 and can produce two mature sequences: miR-423-3p and miR-423-5p. miR-423-3p is expressed in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and has been reported to act as an oncogene via promoting cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, clonogenicity, cell migration and invasion. The expression level of miR-423-3p has been observed to be increased in multiple cancer types, including breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Recent study also confirmed higher levels of several miRNAs including miR-423-3p in lung cancer samples in contrast with healthy controls. Thus, miR-423-3p has the potential to become a useful oncological biomarker.

Altered expression of miR-423-3p has been found in the kidney tissue, blood or urine of renal allograft recipients with acute rejection and fibrosis. miR-423-3p is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition signalling pathways promoting renal fibrosis.

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