MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.
MiR-423-5p is located within the first intron of nuclear speckle splicing regulatory protein 1 gene (NSRP1) on chromosome 17 and has been reported as an oncogenic factor in many cancers including glioblastoma, gastric cancer and prostate cancer. In contrast, miR-423-5p functions as a tumor suppressor and may serve as a diagnostic indicator in ovarian cancer and osteosarcoma.
MiR-423-5p was originally identified as a circulating biomarker for heart disease. Tijsen et al. demonstrated that circulating levels of miR-423-5p were increased in patients with clinical heart failure. Other studies suggest that miR-423-5p is enriched in pericardial fluid, and serum miR-423-5p may be associated with unstable angina pectoris. Furthermore, cellular miR-423-5p may discriminate stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients from unstable CAD patients at six months post- acute myocardial infarction.
Additionally, it was demonstrated that miR-423–5p expression was markedly increased in blood plasma of pregnant women with preeclampsia compared with healthy control group. Moreover, miR-423-5p is also involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Hepatic miR-423-5p inhibition suppressed gluconeogenesis and improved insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and fatty liver in obese diabetic mice. Lastly, miR-423-5p has been reported as a reliable diagnostic biomarker for active tuberculosis.
- References to miR-423-5p