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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

miR-5100 contributes to human carcinogenesis in various cancers, including glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It was observed that miR-5100 was overexpressed in a subset of lung cancer tissues. miR-5100 overexpression increases the cisplatin resistance of the lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The relative level of miR-5100 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues was significantly upregulated, compared with that in corresponding noncancerous tissues. NSCLC patients with higher miR-5100 expression had significantly poorer overall survival and progression-free survival. Overexpression of miR-5100 also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.

miR-5100 plays an important role in the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The study indicated that miR-5100 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of lung epithelial cells.

The expression levels of let-7f-5p, miR-5100 and miR-25-3p were significantly associated with the incidence rate of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (cALL), and these miRNAs might serve as promising biomarkers for cALL.

It was also shown, that miR-5100 negatively regulates Tob2, which acts as a negative regulator of osteogenesis. The important bone-related transcription factor osterix, which can be degraded by binding to Tob2, was influenced by miR-5100 during osteoblast differentiation.

The expression of miR-371b-5p and miR-5100 was increased significantly in the serum of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), compared with healthy controls and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group. It was also higher in active SLE than in inactive SLE. The association was found between the expression levels of miR-371b-5p and miR-5100 and clinical parameters of SLE.

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