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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

miR-92a belongs to miR-17-92 cluster and was identified as a biomarker for many human cancers such as pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma. It may also contribute to progression and invasion of cervical cancer. In addition, recent study has demonstrated increased expression level of miR-92a in osteosarcoma tissues, and its high expression was correlated with clinical stage.

Moreover, miR-92a-3p together with miR-17-5p was confirmed to be up-regulated in circulating exosomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) and their expression levels were significantly correlated with the pathological stages and grades of the CRC patients.

miR-92a-3p is also secreted by liposarcoma cells through extracellular vesicles and participates in pro-tumoral inflammatory process leading to liposarcoma growth in a paracrine manner.

In addition, correlation between miR-92a and cardiovascular disease was reported. It has been demonstrated that miR-92a could regulate endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that high level of plasma miR-92a and endothelial microparticles could reflect the extent of endothelial cell activation and more importantly, that miR-92a could serve as novel biomarkers to distinguish patients with acute myocardial infarction from stable coronary heart disease.

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