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Insulin

Insulin, a polypeptide hormone with a molecular weight of 5800 Da, is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans from the pancreas. Insulin possesses a wide spectrum of biological actions. It stimulates cellular glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, proteogenesis and the formation of DNA and RNA. Insulin plays a key role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels (hepatic output inhibition, stimulation of peripheral glucose utilisation). The resulting hypoglycemic effects of insulin are counterbalanced by hormones with hyperglycemic effects (glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, epinephrin). Insulin secretion is mainly controlled by the plasma glucose levels : hyperglycemia induces a prompt and important increase in circulating insulin levels. Neural influences, as well as various metabolic and hormonal factors (amino acids, glucagon, gastrointestinal hormone) also participate to the control of insulin secretion. Type I (insulin dependent : “juvenile”) diabetes is due to a destruction of the beta cells, with a consequence of absolute lack of insulin. In type II (noninsulin-dependent : “maturity onset”) diabetes, insulin resistance may play an important role; however after several years of evolution, beta-cells failure may occur, leading to a relative insulinopenia requiring, in some cases, insulin administration. Insulin resistance is associated with high circulation levels of the hormone. The most common case of insulin resistance is represented by obesity. Various endocrinopathies (acromegaly, Cushing syndrome) as well as rare cases of insulin receptor defects or cases with anti-insulin receptor antibodies are associated with glucose intolerance or even diabetes due to insulin resistance. The determination of plasma insulin levels is an important parameter in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia. Insulin levels are high in cases of insulinoma (beta-cell tumor). Functional postprandial hypoglycemia may also be associated with inappropriate insulin release to carbohydrate intake. Insulin levels are determined either in the fasting state or during dynamic test :

  1. stimulation test : carbohydrate rich meal, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), arginin infusion, tolbutamide or other sulfonylureas administration.
  2. inhibition test : fasting, somatostatine infusion

Clinical application of insulin determination

  • Determination of the beta-cell reserve during glucose tolerance test or after a carbohydrate rich meal, as a guide for the instauration of insulin therapy;
  • Contribution to the diagnosis of insulin and non-insulin-dependent diabetes;
  • Characterisation and follow-up of states of glucose intolerance;
  • Diagnosis and study of cases of insulin resistance;
  • Diagnosis of insulinoma and other causes of hypoglycemia.


15 results found in Immunoassays
1 results found in Proteins.


Product: Size:

Insulin Human ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RIS006R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Canine ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN012TR 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Human ELISA (Multispecies specificity)

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSCYK060R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Hamster Standard

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHASIN-001R 5x 250 µl

Insulin Porcine ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN013TR 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin (RTU) Mouse ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN-011RUR 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Mouse ELISA Wide Range

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI003R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Rat ELISA Wide Range

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI004R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Mouse ELISA High Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI005R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Rat Elisa High Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI006R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Mouse ELISA Ultra Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI007R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Rat ELISA Ultra Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI008R 96 wells (1 kit)

Rat Insulin ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RTC018R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Mouse/Rat ELISA

Type: Competitive ELISA

RA19004R 96 wells (1 kit)

Insulin Mouse/Rat ELISA (5x96 wells)

Type: Competitive ELISA

RA19004-480R 5x 96 wells (1 kit)

Product: Size:

Insulin Porcine

Type:

RP1764680025 25 mg
RP1764680250 250 mg
RP1764681000 1 g
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