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Surfactant Protein D (SP-D)

Human Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collageneous subfamily of glycoproteins and calcium-dependent lectins (collectins). SP-D is a homotrimeric protein consisting of three 43kDa units that are bonded at their Ntermini. Most preparations of SP-D contain predominantly dodecamers (four trimeric subunits), but also higher multimers have been observed. Each unit consists of at least four discrete structural domains: a short N-terminal domain; a relatively long collagenous domain, a short amphipathic connecting peptide, and a C-terminal, C- type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). SP-D is synthesized and secreted by two types of non-ciliated epithelial cells in the peripheral airway, alveolar type II cells and Clara cells. It is also expressed by various epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and placenta. In the lungs, SP-D participates in the innate response to inhaled microorganisms and organic antigens. SP-D acts by aggregating bacteria and viruses, leukocyte function and stimulating an allergenic response. SP-D binds to the surface glycoconjugates of various microorganisms (eg, influenza virus, HIV, HSV, RSV, Mycoplasma pneumoniae) and the oligosaccharides associated with the surface of numerous organic antigens and enhances their phagocytosis. Studies have shown that SP-D binds to T cells, thus inhibiting their proliferation. SP-D also binds with inflammatory ligands via protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions that are effective in reducing specific inflammation. In addition, SP-D binds to apoptotic cells and stimulates their phagocytosis by macrophages governed by mechanisms dependent and CD91 calreticulin. Given that SP-D together with SP-A affects the reactivity of immune cells, their presence in the endometrium and placenta plays an important role in protection against bacteria and toxins during pregnancy. Reduced levels of all components of pulmonary surfactant, including SP-D, has been linked to premature birth. Disturbance of pulmonary surfactant is in many cases the reason for collapse of the lungs and is also associated with many pulmonary diseases. All types of chronic lung disease is characterized by pathologically altered levels in lung tissue (fibrosis and emphysema). Studies have shown that expression of SP-D is associated with many pulmonary diseases: cystic fibrosis, acute interstitial pneumonia (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, alveolar proteinase and tuberculosis. Clinical application and areas of investigation: Cystic fibrosis, Acute interstitial pneumonia (ARDS), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Asthma, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Alveolar capillary dysplasia and alveolar proteinase, Immune response, infection and inflammation

1 result found in Immunoassays

Immunoassays
Product Size Price
Surfactant Protein D Human ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RD194059101 96 wells (1 kit)