The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenocysteine-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxido-reductases. All the mammalian TrxRs are homologous to glutathione reductase with respect to primary structure including the conserved redox catalytic site (-Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly- Cys-) but distinctively with a C-terminal extension containing a catalytically active enultimate selenocysteine (SeCys) residue in the conserved sequence(-Gly-Cys-SeCys- Gly). TrxR is homodimeric protein in which each monomer includes an FAD prosthetic group, a NADPH binding site and a redox catalytic site. Electrons are transferred from NADPH via FAD and the active-site disulfide to C-terminal SeCys-containing redox center, which then reduces the substrate like thioredoxin. The members of TrxR family are 55 – 58 kilodalton in molecular size and composed of three isoforms including cytosolic TrxR1, mitochondrial TrxR2, and TrxR3, known as Trx and GSSG reductase (TGR). TrxR plays a key role in protection of cells against oxidative stress and redox-regulatory mechanism of transcription factors and various biological phenomena.