Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also called cartilage glycoprotein 39 or YKL-40 in human and breast regression protein 39 in mice, is a 40 kDa chitin-binding glycoprotein without chitinase activity, and it has been shown to act as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation. This molecule is synthesized under inflammatory conditions, including bronchial asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer, but is not highly expressed under physiological conditions. This glycoprotein is expressed and secreted by a variety of cell types including articular chondrocytes, synoviocytes, osteoblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. Up to now, several studies have shown an important link between CHI3L1 and inflammation or metabolic diseases, including asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis, and naturally believe that CHI3L1 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the related diseases. It is also highly regulated, being stimulated by a number of mediators including IL-13 and IFN-γ and being detected in exaggerated quantities in the circulation and or biologic fluids from patients with a spectrum of diseases including asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. YKL-40/Chi3l1 is elevated in the serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalizations, patients with cystic fibrosis and acute lung infections, and control subjects following endotoxin injection.
- References to Chitinase 3-Like 1 (CHI3L1, YKL-40)