Cystatin C is a non-glycosilated basic single-chain protein consisting of 120 amino acids with a molecular weight of 13.36 kDa and is characterized by two disulfide bonds in the carboxy-terminal region. It belongs to the cystatins superfamilly which inactivates lysosomal cysteine proteinases, e.g. cathepsin B, H,.K, L and S. Imbalance between Cystatin C and cysteine proteinases is associated with inflammation, renal failure, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and hereditary Cystatin C amyloid angiopathy. Its increased level has been found in patients with autoimune diseases, with colorectal tumors and in patients on dyalisis. Serum Cystatin C seems to be better marker of glomerular filtration rate than creatinine. On the other hand, low concentration of Cystatin C presents a risk factor for secondary cardiovascular events.