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Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:FGF-21, UNQ3115/PRO10196
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD191108200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Serum, Plasma-EDTA, Plasma-Heparin, Plasma-Citrate

Sample Requirements

75 µl/well

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under this condition, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see the label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

30–1920 pg/ml

Limit of Detection

7 pg/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 6; CV = 2.0 %

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 6; CV = 3.3 %

Spiking Recovery

100.4 %

Dilutation Linearity

102.1 %

Crossreactivity

  • bovine Non-detectable
  • cat Non-detectable
  • dog Non-detectable
  • goat Non-detectable
  • hamster Non-detectable
  • horse Non-detectable
  • mouse Non-detectable
  • pig Non-detectable
  • rabbit Non-detectable
  • rat Non-detectable
  • sheep Non-detectable
  • chicken Not tested
  • human Yes
  • monkey Yes (recommended dilution 1:2)
Summary

Features

  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is less than 3.5 hours
  • The kit measures FGF-21 in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin)
  • Assay format - 96 wells
  • Quality controls are human serum based
  • Standard is recombinant protein based
  • Components of kit are provided ready to use, concentrated, lyophilized or in liquid form

Research topic

Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Energy metabolism and body weight regulation

Summary

The fibroblast growth factor family (FGFs) are a family of more than 20 small (17-26 kDa) secreted peptides. The initial characterisation of these proteins focused on their ability to stimulate fibroblast proliferation through FGF receptors (FGFRs). Members of FGFs family play important roles in defining and regulating the development and function of endocrine tissues as well as modulating various metabolic processes.
A recently described member of FGFs family, FGF-21, also called Fibroblast growth factor 21 precursor and UNQ3115/PRO10196, has been characterised as a potent metabolic regulator. FGF-21 is preferentially expressed in liver and regulates glucose uptake in human fat cells. Moreover, therapeutic administration of FGF-21 decreased plasma glucose levels and triglycerides to near normal levels in multiple mouse models of type 2 diabetes. Short-term treatment of normal or db/db mice with FGF-21 lowered plasma levels of insulin and improved glucose clearance compared with vehicle after oral glucose tolerance testing. Constant infusion of FGF-21 for 8 weeks in db/db mice nearly normalized fed blood glucose levels and increased plasma insulin levels. When administrated daily for 6 weeks to diabetic rhesus monkeys, FGF-21 caused dramatic decline in fasting plasma glucose, fructosamine, triglicerides, insulin, and glucagon. FGF-21 administration also led to significant improvements in lipoprotein profiles, including lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raising of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as beneficial changes in the circulating levels of several cardiovascular risk factors.
FGF-21, when overexpressed, protected animals from diet-induced obesity. These results define a functional role for FGF-21 in vivo and provide evidence that FGF-21 can lower glucose and triglyceride levels in diabetic animals.
In contrast to several members of the FGF family which may induce therapeutically undesirable in vivo proliferation of various cell types, a recent study demonstrated that FGF-21 did not induce mitogenicity, hypoglycemia or weight gain at any dose tested in diabetic or healthy animals or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Thus, FGF-21 appears to have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Areas of investigation:
Lipid metabolism, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Metabolic syndrome

References to Product

References

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  • Bisgaard A, Sorensen K, Johannsen TH, Helge JW, Andersson AM, Juul A. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2014;2014 (1):7
  • Bookout AL, de Groot MH, Owen BM, Lee S, Gautron L, Lawrence HL, Ding X, Elmquist JK, Takahashi JS, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA. FGF21 regulates metabolism and circadian behavior by acting on the nervous system. Nat Med. 2013 Sep;19 (9):1147-52
  • Christodoulides C, Dyson P, Sprecher D, Tsintzas K, Karpe F. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists but not ketosis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94 (9):3594-601
  • Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdes P, Gomez-Perez FJ, Meza-Arana CE, Cruz-Bautista I, Arellano-Campos O, Navarrete-Lopez M, Aguilar-Salinas CA. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;163 (3):469-77
  • Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdes P, Meza-Arana CE, Brito-Cordova G, Gomez-Perez FJ, Mehta R, Oseguera-Moguel J, Aguilar-Salinas CA. Exercise increases serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels. PLoS One. 2012;7 (5):e38022
  • Dostalova I, Haluzikova D, Haluzik M. Fibroblast growth factor 21: a novel metabolic regulator with potential therapeutic properties in obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2009;58 (1):1-7
  • Dostalova I, Kavalkova P, Haluzikova D, Lacinova Z, Mraz M, Papezova H, Haluzik M. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun 17;
  • Fazeli PK, Misra M, Goldstein M, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Fibroblast growth factor-21 may mediate growth hormone resistance in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95 (1):369-74
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Antonellis PJ, Bina HA, Kharitonenkov A, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010 Nov;59 (11):2781-9
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Nasser IA, Popov Y, Cunniff JC, Lundasen T, Kharitonenkov A, Schuppan D, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Limits Lipotoxicity by Promoting Hepatic Fatty Acid Activation in Mice on Methionine and Choline-Deficient Diets. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jul 30;
  • Gallego-Escuredo JM, Gomez-Ambrosi J, Catalan V, Domingo P, Giralt M, Fruhbeck G, Villarroya F. Opposite alterations in FGF21 and FGF19 levels and disturbed expression of the receptor machinery for endocrine FGFs in obese patients. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 May 12;
  • Gariani K, Drifte G, Dunn-Siegrist I, Pugin J, Jornayvaz FR. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS. Endocr Connect. 2013;2 (3):146-53
  • Guasti L, Silvennoinen S, Bulstrode NW, Ferretti P, Sankilampi U, Dunkel L. Elevated FGF21 leads to attenuated postnatal linear growth in preterm infants through GH resistance in chondrocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;99 (11):E2198-206
  • Han SH, Choi SH, Cho BJ, Lee Y, Lim S, Park YJ, Moon MK, Lee HK, Kang SW, Han DS, Kim YB, Jang HC, Park KS. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration is associated with residual renal function and insulin resistance in end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Metabolism. 2010 Nov;59 (11):1656-62
  • Hero M, Dunkel L, Vaaralahti K, Raivio T. Serum FGF21 in Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature: Relationship to Lipid Profile, Onset of Puberty and Growth*. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Feb 1;
  • Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen AR, Krogh-Madsen R, Yfanti C, Akerstrom T, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes. 2009 Dec;58 (12):2797-801
  • Isaac O, Thiemer K. [Biochemical studies on camomile components/III. In vitro studies about the antipeptic activity of (--)-alpha-bisabolol (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1975 Sep;25 (9):1352-4
  • Jian WX, Peng WH, Jin J, Chen XR, Fang WJ, Wang WX, Qin L, Dong Y, Su Q. Association between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 and diabetic nephropathy. Metabolism. 2012 Jun;61 (6):853-9
  • Jin QR, Bando Y, Miyawaki K, Shikama Y, Kosugi C, Aki N, Funaki M, Noji S. Correlation of fibroblast growth factor 21 serum levels with metabolic parameters in Japanese subjects. J Med Invest. 2014;61 (1-2):28-34
  • Kohara M, Masuda T, Shiizaki K, Akimoto T, Watanabe Y, Honma S, Sekiguchi C, Miyazawa Y, Kusano E, Kanda Y, Asano Y, Kuro-O M, Nagata D. Association between circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 and mortality in end-stage renal disease. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 5;12(6):e0178971. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178971
  • Kotulak T, Drapalova J, Kopecky P, Lacinova Z, Kramar P, Riha H, Netuka I, Maly J, Housa D, Blaha J, Svacina S, Haluzik M. Increased circulating and epicardial adipose tissue mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 after cardiac surgery: possible role in postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance. Physiol Res. 2011 Nov 22;60 (5):757-67
  • Kralisch S, Tonjes A, Krause K, Richter J, Lossner U, Kovacs P, Ebert T, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M. Fibroblast growth factor-21 serum concentrations are associated with metabolic and hepatic markers in humans. J Endocrinol. 2013;216 (2):135-43
  • Laeger T, Henagan TM, Albarado DC, Redman LM, Bray GA, Noland RC, Munzberg H, Hutson SM, Gettys TW, Schwartz MW, Morrison CD. FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep 2;124 (9):3913-22
  • Lenart-Lipinska M, Matyjaszek-Matuszek B, Gernand W, Nowakowski A, Solski J. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 is predictive of combined cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at a relatively short-term follow-up. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Aug;101 (2):194-200
  • Li G, Yin J, Fu J, Li L, Grant SF, Li C, Li M, Mi J, Li M, Gao S. FGF21 deficiency is associated with childhood obesity, insulin resistance and hypoadiponectinaemia: The BCAMS Study. Diabetes Metab. 2017 Jan 27. pii: S1262-3636(16)30569-9. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.12.003
  • Li H, Bao Y, Xu A, Pan X, Lu J, Wu H, Lu H, Xiang K, Jia W. Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 is Associated with Adverse Lipid Profiles and {gamma}-glutamyltransferase but not Insulin Sensitivity in Chinese Subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar 24;
  • Li X, Fan X, Ren F, Zhang Y, Shen C, Ren G, Sun J, Zhang N, Wang W, Ning G, Yang J. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and associated with hsCRP levels independently. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Jul;93 (1):10-6
  • Lin Z, Wu Z, Yin X, Liu Y, Yan X, Lin S, Xiao J, Wang X, Feng W, Li X. Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile. PLoS One. 2010;5 (12):e15534
  • Lin Z, Zhou Z, Liu Y, Gong Q, Yan X, Xiao J, Wang X, Lin S, Feng W, Li X. Circulating FGF21 levels are progressively increased from the early to end stages of chronic kidney diseases and are associated with renal function in Chinese. PLoS One. 2011;6 (4):e18398
  • Mashili FL, Austin RL, Deshmukh AS, Fritz T, Caidahl K, Bergdahl K, Zierath JR, Chibalin AV, Moller DE, Kharitonenkov A, Krook A. Direct effects of FGF21 on glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle: implications for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 Mar;27 (3):286-97
  • Matuszek B, Lenart-Lipinska M, Duma D, Solski J, Nowakowski A. Evaluation of concentrations of FGF-21 - a new adipocytokine in type 2 diabetes. Endokrynol Pol. 2010 Jan-Feb;61 (1):50-4
  • Miehle K, Ebert T, Kralisch S, Hoffmann A, Kratzsch J, Schlogl H, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M. Serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 21 are elevated in patients with congenital or acquired lipodystrophy. Cytokine. 2016 May 11;83:239-244
  • Mraz M, Bartlova M, Lacinova Z, Haluzikova D, Humenanska V, Haluzik M. Serum concentrations of novel metabolic regulator FGF–21 in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of very low calorie diet and PPAR-α agonist treatment. Poster presented in ADA 2008;
  • Mraz M, Bartlova M, Lacinova Z, Michalsky D, Kasalicky M, Haluzikova D, Matoulek M, Dostalova I, Humenanska V, Haluzik M. Serum concentrations and tissue expression of a novel endocrine regulator fibroblast growth factor-21 in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Sep;71 (3):369-75
  • Mutanen A, Heikkila P, Lohi J, Raivio T, Jalanko H, Pakarinen MP. Serum FGF21 increases with hepatic fat accumulation in pediatric onset intestinal failure. J Hepatol. 2014 Jan;60 (1):183-90
  • Novotny D, Vaverkova H, Karasek D, Lukes J, Slavik L, Malina P, Orsag J. Evaluation of total adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Physiol Res. 2014;63 (2):219-28
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  • Reinehr T, Karges B, Meissner T, Wiegand S, Fritsch M, Holl RW, Woelfle J. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and Fetuin-A in Obese Adolescents With and Without Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug;100 (8):3004-10
  • Reinehr T, Woelfle J, Wunsch R, Roth CL. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF-21) and Its Relation to Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Children: A Longitudinal Analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;97 (6):2143-50
  • Samson SL, Sathyanarayana P, Jogi M, Gonzalez EV, Gutierrez A, Krishnamurthy R, Muthupillai R, Chan L, Bajaj M. Exenatide decreases hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a mouse model of obesity and in a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2011 Sep 29;
  • Sarruf DA, Thaler JP, Morton GJ, German J, Fischer JD, Ogimoto K, Schwartz MW. Fibroblast growth factor 21 action in the brain increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity in obese rats. Diabetes. 2010 Jul;59 (7):1817-24
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  • Spolcova A, Holubova H, Mikulaskova B, Nagelova V, Stofkova A, Lacinova Z, Jurcovicova J, Haluzik M, Maletinska L, Zelezna B. Changes in FGF21 serum concentrations and liver mRNA expression in an experimental model of complete lipodystrophy and insulin-resistant diabetes. Physiol Res. 2014 Sep 4;63 (4):483-90
  • Stein S, Bachmann A, Lossner U, Kratzsch J, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M. Serum levels of the adipokine FGF21 depend on renal function. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jan;32 (1):126-8
  • Stein S, Stepan H, Kratzsch J, Verlohren M, Verlohren HJ, Drynda K, Lossner U, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Metabolism. 2009 Aug 20;
  • Stepan H, Kley K, Hindricks J, Kralisch S, Jank A, Schaarschmidt W, Schrey S, Ebert T, Lossner U, Kratzsch J, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Richter J, Fasshauer M. Serum levels of the adipokine fibroblast growth factor-21 are increased in preeclampsia. Cytokine. 2013 May;62 (2):322-6
  • Suomalainen A, Elo JM, Pietiläinen KH. Supplementary webappendix. Supplement to: Suomalainen A, Elo JM, Pietiläinen KH, et al. FGF-21 as a biomarker for muscle-manifesting mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies: a diagnostic study. Lancet Neurol 2011; published online Aug 4. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70155-7.
  • Suomalainen A, Elo JM, Pietilainen KH, Hakonen AH, Sevastianova K, Korpela M, Isohanni P, Marjavaara SK, Tyni T, Kiuru-Enari S, Pihko H, Darin N, Ounap K, Kluijtmans LA, Paetau A, Buzkova J, Bindoff LA, Annunen-Rasila J, Uusimaa J, Rissanen A, Yki-Jarvinen H, Hirano M, Tulinius M, Smeitink J, Tyynismaa H. FGF-21 as a biomarker for muscle-manifesting mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies: a diagnostic study. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Sep;10 (9):806-18
  • Tanimura Y, Aoi W, Takanami Y, Kawai Y, Mizushima K, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T. Acute exercise increases fibroblast growth factor 21 in metabolic organs and circulation. Physiol Rep. 2016 Jun;4 (12)
  • Tyynismaa H, Raivio T, Hakkarainen A, Ortega-Alonso A, Lundbom N, Kaprio J, Rissanen A, Suomalainen A, Pietilainen KH. Liver fat but not other adiposity measures influence circulating FGF21 levels in healthy young adult twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96 (2):E351-5
  • Vienberg SG, Brons C, Nilsson E, Astrup A, Vaag A, Andersen B. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Jul;167 (1):49-57
  • Vienberg SG, Jacobsen SH, Worm D, Hvolris LE, Naver L, Almdal T, Hansen DL, Wulff BS, Clausen TR, Madsbad S, Holst JJ, Andersen B. Increased glucose-stimulated FGF21 response to oral glucose in obese non-diabetic subjects after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Sep 21;
  • von Holstein-Rathlou S, BonDurant LD, Peltekian L, Naber MC, Yin TC, Claflin KE, Urizar AI, Madsen AN, Ratner C, Holst B, Karstoft K, Vandenbeuch A, Anderson CB, Cassell MD, Thompson AP, Solomon TP, Rahmouni K, Kinnamon SC, Pieper AA, Gillum MP, Potthoff MJ. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver. Cell Metab . 2016 Feb 9;23 (2):335-43
  • Zhang X, Yeung DC, Karpisek M, Stejskal D, Zhou ZG, Liu F, Wong RL, Chow WS, Tso AW, Lam KS, Xu A. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in obesity and are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome in humans. Diabetes . Feb 5 (2008)
References to Summary

References to Fibroblast Growth Factor 21

  • Christodoulides C, Dyson P, Sprecher D, Tsintzas K, Karpe F. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists but not ketosis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94 (9):3594-601
  • Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdes P, Gomez-Perez FJ, Meza-Arana CE, Cruz-Bautista I, Arellano-Campos O, Navarrete-Lopez M, Aguilar-Salinas CA. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;163 (3):469-77
  • Dostalova I, Haluzikova D, Haluzik M. Fibroblast growth factor 21: a novel metabolic regulator with potential therapeutic properties in obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2009;58 (1):1-7
  • Dostalova I, Kavalkova P, Haluzikova D, Lacinova Z, Mraz M, Papezova H, Haluzik M. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93 (9):3627-32
  • Fazeli PK, Misra M, Goldstein M, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Fibroblast growth factor-21 may mediate growth hormone resistance in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95 (1):369-74
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Antonellis PJ, Bina HA, Kharitonenkov A, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010 Nov;59 (11):2781-9
  • Fu L, John LM, Adams SH, Yu XX, Tomlinson E, Renz M, Williams PM, Soriano R, Corpuz R, Moffat B, Vandlen R, Simmons L, Foster J, Stephan JP, Tsai SP, Stewart TA. Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes. Endocrinology. 2004 Jun;145(6):2594-603. Epub 2004 Feb 19.
  • Han SH, Choi SH, Cho BJ, Lee Y, Lim S, Park YJ, Moon MK, Lee HK, Kang SW, Han DS, Kim YB, Jang HC, Park KS. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration is associated with residual renal function and insulin resistance in end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Metabolism. 2010 Nov;59 (11):1656-62
  • Harmer NJ, Pellegrini L, Chirgadze D, Fernandez-Recio J, Blundell TL. The crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 reveals novel features of the FGF family and offers a structural basis for its unusual receptor affinity. Biochemistry. 2004 Jan 27;43(3):629-40.
  • Hero M, Dunkel L, Vaaralahti K, Raivio T. Serum FGF21 in Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature: Relationship to Lipid Profile, Onset of Puberty and Growth*. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Feb 1;
  • Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen AR, Krogh-Madsen R, Yfanti C, Akerstrom T, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes. 2009 Dec;58 (12):2797-801
  • Holt JA, Luo G, Billin AN, Bisi J, McNeill YY, Kozarsky KF, Donahee M, Wang da Y, Mansfield TA, Kliewer SA, Goodwin B, Jones SA. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 1;17(13):1581-91. Epub 2003 Jun 18.
  • Jian WX, Peng WH, Jin J, Chen XR, Fang WJ, Wang WX, Qin L, Dong Y, Su Q. Association between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 and diabetic nephropathy. Metabolism. 2012 Jun;61 (6):853-9
  • Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova TL, Koester A, Ford AM, Micanovic R, Galbreath EJ, Sandusky GE, Hammond LJ, Moyers JS, Owens RA, Gromada J, Brozinick JT, Hawkins ED, Wroblewski VJ, Li DS, Mehrbod F, Jaskunas SR, Shanafelt AB. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005 Jun;115(6):1627-35. Epub 2005 May 2.
  • Kotulak T, Drapalova J, Kopecky P, Lacinova Z, Kramar P, Riha H, Netuka I, Maly J, Housa D, Blaha J, Svacina S, Haluzik M. Increased circulating and epicardial adipose tissue mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 after cardiac surgery: possible role in postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance. Physiol Res. 2011;60 (5):757-67
  • Li H, Bao Y, Xu A, Pan X, Lu J, Wu H, Lu H, Xiang K, Jia W. Serum fibrobl
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