Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), as a member of the cytoskeletal protein family, is the principal 8–9 nm intermediate filament in mature astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). GFAP is a monomeric molecule with a molecular mass between 40 and 53 kDa and an isoelectric point between 5.7 and 5.8. GFAP is highly brain specific protein that is not found outside the CNS. Some studies showed that GFAP is released into the blood very soon after traumatic brain injury (TBI), that GFAP is related to brain injury severity and outcome after TBI and that GFAP is not released after multiple trauma without brain injury. In the CNS following injury, either as a result of trauma, disease, genetic disorders, or chemical insult, astrocytes become reactive and respond in a typical manner, termed astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is characterized by rapid synthesis of GFAP. GFAP normally increases with age and there is a wide variation in collection and processing of human brain tissue. Thanks to the high brain specificity and early releasing from CNS after TBI, GFAP might be suitable marker for early diagnostics. Areas of investigation: Brain injury, Ischemic stroke.
- References to Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)