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Manufactured by BioVendor

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Human ELISA (GFAP)

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:GFAP
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price

RD192072200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data


Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody


Serum, Plasma-EDTA, Plasma-Heparin, Plasma-Citrate, Cerebrospinal fluid

Sample Requirements

35 µl/well


At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.


Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

0.25–25 ng/ml

Limit of Detection

0.045 ng/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 5.1%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 7; CV = 5.7%

Spiking Recovery


Dilutation Linearity



  • bovine Not tested
  • cat Not tested
  • dog Not tested
  • goat Not tested
  • hamster Not tested
  • horse Not tested
  • human Not tested
  • chicken Not tested
  • monkey Not tested
  • mouse Not tested
  • pig Not tested
  • rabbit Not tested
  • rat Not tested
  • sheep Not tested


  • It is intended for research use only
  • The total assay time is about 5 hours
  • The kit measures GFAP in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma
  • Assay format is 96 wells
  • Quality Controls are human serum based
  • Standard is purified native protein based
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Neural tissue markers


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), as a member of the cytoskeletal protein family, is the principal 8-9 nm intermediate filament in mature astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). GFAP is a monomeric molecule with a molecular mass between 40 and 53 kDa and an isoelectric point between 5.7 and 5.8. GFAP is highly brain specific protein that is not found outside the CNS. Some studies showed that GFAP is released into the blood very soon after traumatic brain injury (TBI), that GFAP is related to brain injury severity and outcome after TBI and that GFAP is not released after multiple trauma without brain injury.

In the CNS following injury, either as a result of trauma, disease, genetic disorders, or chemical insult, astrocytes become reactive and respond in a typical manner, termed astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is characterized by rapid synthesis of GFAP. GFAP normally increases with age and there is a wide variation in collection and processing of human brain tissue. Thanks to the high brain specificity and early releasing from CNS after TBI, GFAP might be suitable marker for early diagnostics.

Areas of investigation: Brain injury, Ischemic stroke.

References to Product


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  • Brouns R, De Vil B, Cras P, De Surgeloose D, Marien P, De Deyn PP. Neurobiochemical Markers of Brain Damage in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients. Clin Chem. 2009 Dec 3;
  • Dabrowski W, Rzecki Z, Czajkowski M, Pilat J. Magnesium reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9, but not glial fibrillary acidic protein, in cardiac surgery patients. Future Neurol. 2012;7(3):349–359
  • Ehrlich S, Burghardt R, Weiss D, Salbach-Andrae H, Craciun EM, Goldhahn K, Klapp BF, Lehmkuhl U. Glial and neuronal damage markers in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Neural Transm. 2008 Jun;115 (6):921-7
  • Feneberg E, Steinacker P, Lehnert S, Bohm B, Mayer G, Otto M. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2013 Jul;14 (7):692-4
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  • Ishiki A, Harada R, Kai H, et al. Neuroimaging-pathological correlations of [18F]THK5351 PET in progressive supranuclear palsy. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018;6(1):53. Published 2018 Jun 29. doi:10.1186/s40478-018-0556-7
  • Jesse S, Steinacker P, Cepek L, von Arnim CA, Tumani H, Lehnert S, Kretzschmar HA, Baier M, Otto M. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and protein S-100B: different concentration pattern of glial proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 Jul;17 (3):541-51
  • Jung CS, Foerch C, Schanzer A, Heck A, Plate KH, Seifert V, Steinmetz H, Raabe A, Sitzer M. Serum GFAP is a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma multiforme. Brain. 2007 Dec;130 (Pt 12):3336-41
  • Kaneko T, Kasaoka S, Miyauchi T, Fujita M, Oda Y, Tsuruta R, Maekawa T. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a predictive biomarker of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2009 Jul;80 (7):790-4
  • Kumpaitiene B, Svagzdiene M, Drigotiene I, et al. Correlation among decreased regional cerebral oxygen saturation, blood levels of brain injury biomarkers, and cognitive disorder. J Int Med Res. 2018;46(9):3621-3629
  • Kwon BK, Stammers AM, Belanger LM, Bernardo A, Chan D, Bishop CM, Slobogean GP, Zhang H, Umedaly H, Giffin M, Street J, Boyd MC, Paquette SJ, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Biomarkers of Injury Severity in Acute Human Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2009 Dec 28;
  • Kwon BK, Streijger F, Fallah N, Noonan V, Belanger LM, Ritchie L, Paquette SJ, Ailon T, Boyd MC, Street J, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Stratify Injury Severity and Predict Outcome in Human Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Jun 27;
  • Linker RA, Brechlin P, Jesse S, Steinacker P, Lee DH, Asif AR, Jahn O, Tumani H, Gold R, Otto M. Proteome profiling in murine models of multiple sclerosis: identification of stage specific markers and culprits for tissue damage. PLoS One. 2009;4 (10):e7624
  • Lumpkins KM, Bochicchio GV, Keledjian K, Simard JM, McCunn M, Scalea T. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is highly correlated with brain injury. J Trauma. 2008 Oct;65 (4):778-82; discussion 782-4
  • Lyubimova NV, Timofeiev YS, Sushlinskii NE. [The glio-fibrillar acid protein in blood serum of patients with brain tumors and neurological diseases of non-tumorous etiology]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2016 Aug;61(8):466-9
  • Misu T, Takano R, Fujihara K, Takahashi T, Sato S, Itoyama Y. Marked increase in cerebrospinal fluid glial fibrillar acidic protein in neuromyelitis optica: an astrocytic damage marker. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 May;80 (5):575-7
  • Pawliszak W, Szwed K, Słomka A, et al. Three-vessel coronary artery disease may predict changes in biochemical brain injury markers after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2018;19(9):735-738
  • Pelinka LE. Serum Markers of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Are They Useful?. October 15-17 (2004)
  • Pranzatelli MR, Tate ED, McGee NR, Verhulst SJ. CSF neurofilament light chain is elevated in OMS (decreasing with immunotherapy) and other pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Jan 15;266 (1-2):75-81
  • Steiner J, Bielau H, Bernstein HG, Bogerts B, Wunderlich MT. Increased cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of S100B in first-onset schizophrenia are not related to a degenerative release of glial fibrillar acidic protein, myelin basic protein and neurone-specific enolase from glia or neurones. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . Nov;77(11):1284-7 (2006)
  • Streijger F, Lee JH, Manouchehri N, Melnyk AD, Chak J, Tigchelaar S, So K, Okon EB, Jiang S, Kinsler R, Barazanji K, Cripton PA, Kwon BK. Responses of the Acutely Injured Spinal Cord to Vibration that Simulates Transport in Helicopters or Mine-Resistant-Ambush-Protected Vehicles. J Neurotrauma. 2016 May 23;
  • Ting KK, Brew BJ, Guillemin GJ. Effect of quinolinic acid on human astrocytes morphology and functions: implications in Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2009;6:36
  • Uzawa A, Mori M, Sawai S, Masuda S, Muto M, Uchida T, Ito S, Nomura F, Kuwabara S. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels are increased during initial neuromyelitis optica attacks. Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Jun 5;421:181-3
  • Vajtr D, Benada O, Linzer P, Sámal F, Springer D, Strejc P, Beran M, Průša R, Zima T. Immunohistochemistry and serum values of S-100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and hyperphosphorylated neurofilaments in brain injuries. Soud Lek. 2012 Jan;57(1):7-12
  • Vedovelli L, Padalino M, D'Aronco S, Stellin G, Ori C, Carnielli VP, Simonato M, Cogo P. Glial fibrillary acidic protein plasma levels are correlated with degree of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass in congenital heart disease surgery. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2017 Mar 1;24(3):436-442. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivw395
  • Wunderlich MT, Wallesch CW, Goertler M. Release of glial fibrillary acidic protein is related to the neurovascular status in acute ischemic stroke. Eur J Neurol . Oct;13(10):1118-23 (2006)
  • Yokobori S, Bullock R, Gajavelli S, Burks S, Mondello S, Mo J, Wang KK, Hayes RL, Bramlett H, Dietrich D. Preoperative-induced mild hypothermia attenuates neuronal damage in a rat subdural hematoma model. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2013;118:77-81
  • Zurek J, Fedora M. The usefulness of S100B, NSE, GFAP, NF-H, secretagogin and Hsp70 as a predictive biomarker of outcome in children with traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 Oct 7;
References to Summary

References to Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

  • Runnerstam M et al.: Extracellular glial fibrillary acidic protein and amino acids in brain regions of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage – correlation with level of consciousness and site of bleeding. Neurolofical Research. 19: 361–368 (1997)
  • Missler U et al.: Measurement of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human blood: analytical method and premiliary clinical results. Clinical Chemistry. 45(1): 138–41 (1999)
  • Eng LF et al.: Glial fibrillary acidic protein: GFAP – Thirty – One Years (1969–2000). Neurochemical Research. 25: 1439–1451 (2000)
  • Whitelaw A et al.: Brain specific proteins in postheamorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 84: F90-F91 (2001)
  • Finch CE: Neurons, Glia, and Plasticity in normal Brain Aging. Adv Gerontol. 10: 35–39 (2002)
  • Beems T et al.: Serum- and CSF-concentrations of brain specific proteins in hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochirurgica. 145: 37–43 (2003)
  • Pelinka LE et al.: Glial fibrillary acidic protein in serum after traumatic brain injury and multiple trauma. Journal of Trauma. 57: 1006–1012 (2004)
  • Pelinka LE et al.: GFAP versus S100B in serum after traumatic brain injury: Relationship to brain damage and outcome. Journal of Neurotrauma. 21: 1553–1561 (2004)
  • Mouser PE et al.: Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein within Degenerating Astrocytes of the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Am J Pathol. 168(3): 936– 946 (2006)
  • Blechingberg J et al.: Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript. Nucleic Acids Res. 35(22): 7636–50 (2007)
  • Brommeland T et al.: Serum levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein correlate to tumour volume of high-grade gliomas. Acta Neurol Scand. 116(6): 380–4 (2007)
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