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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases.

hsa-miR-150 is encoded by the gene located on the human chromosome 19q13. hsa-miR-150 is selectively expressed in lymph nodes, spleen, and in mature B- and T-cells, and is an important regulator of differentiation and activation of immune cells. It is also involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses. hsa-miR-150 is one of the most studied miRNA and plays an important role in pathogenesis of a number of tumours.

Low levels of hsa-miR-150 in pacient's tumor samples predicted shorter survival and worse response to adjuvant chemotherapy; in contrast, high expression of hsa-miR-150 in pacient's tumor samples indicates better prognosis and better response to adjuvant chemotherapy.

Moreover, over-expression of hsa-miR-150-5p leads to reduced migration and invasion of colorectal carcinoma cells. hsa-miR-150-5p also acts as a metastasis suppressor in colorectal carcinoma.

Plasma levels of hsa-miR-150 were downregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

hsa-miR-150-5p was upregulated in tumor tissues of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSLC) patients and was negatively correlated with expression of the tumor-suppressor geneTP53.

High levels of hsa-miR-150 were observed in gastric cancer tissue. hsa-miR-150 over-expression also promoted gastric cancer proliferation. Furthermore, over-expression of hsa-miR-150 was found in osteosarcoma tumor samples.

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