MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene translation through silencing or degradation of target mRNAs. They are involved in multiple biological processes, including differentiation and proliferation, metabolism, hemostasis, apoptosis or inflammation, and in pathophysiology of many diseases. Numerous studies have suggested circulating miRNAs as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. miR-16, located on the 13q14 chromosome, was initially found to be related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Studies reveal that miR-16 is down-regulated and plays a tumor suppressive role by affecting cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and apoptosis in different types of malignancies, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, osteosarcoma and prostate cancer. In contrast, other studies have reported that miR-16 is up-regulated in renal cell carcinoma and espohageal squamous cell carcinoma where it acts as an oncogene by inducing cellular proliferation and migration and reducing apoptosis. The level of miR-16-5p was significantly decreased in plasma of systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared with healthy controls and also in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy controls.
- References to miR-16-5p