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Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Human, Sheep Polyclonal Antibody

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Polyclonal Antibody
  • Other names:FGF-21, UNQ3115/PRO10196
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD184108100 0.1 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Polyclonal Antibody

Applications

Western blotting, ELISA, Immunohistochemistry

Antibodies Applications

Source of Antigen

E. coli

Hosts

Sheep

Preparation

The antibody was raised in sheep by immunization with the recombinant Human FGF-21.

Amino Acid Sequence

The immunization antigen (20.1 kDa) is a protein containing 195 AA of recombinant Human FGF-21. N-terminal His-tag, 14 extra AA (highlighted).

MRGSHHHHHHGMASHPIPDSSPLLQFGGQVRQRYLYTDDAQQTEAHLEIREDGTVGGAADQSPESLLQLKALKPGVIQILGVKTSRFLCQRPDGALYGSLHFDPEACSFRELLLEDGYNVYQSEAHGLPLHLPGNKSPHRDPAPRGPARFLPLPGLPPAPPEPPGILAPQPPDVGSSDPLSMVGPSQGRSPSYAS

Species Reactivity

Human. Not yet tested in other species.

Purification Method

Immunoaffinity chromatography on a column with immobilized recombinant Human FGF-21.

Antibody Content

0.1 mg (determined by BCA method, BSA was used as a standard)

Formulation

The antibody is lyophilized in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, 0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.2. AZIDE FREE.

Reconstitution

Add 0.1 ml of deionized water and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely. Slight turbidity may occur after reconstitution, which does not affect activity of the antibody. In this case clarify the solution by centrifugation.

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

The lyophilized antibody remains stable and fully active until the expiry date when stored at –20°C. Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store frozen at –80°C. Reconstituted antibody can be stored at 4°C for a limited period of time; it does not show decline in activity after one week at 4°C.

Quality Control Test

Indirect ELISA – to determine titer of the antibody SDS PAGE – to determine purity of the antibody

Note

This product is for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Energy metabolism and body weight regulation

Summary

The FGFs are a family of more than 20 small (~17–26 kDa) secreted peptides. The initial characterization of these proteins focused on their ability to stimulate fibroblast proliferation. This mitogenic activity was mediated through FGF receptors (FGFRs) 1, 2, or 3. A fourth closely related tyrosine kinase receptor (FGFR4) was able to bind the FGFs but did not lead to a mitogenic response.

FGFs modulate cellular activity via at least 5 distinct subfamilies of high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFRs): FGFR-1, –2, –3, and –4, all with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and, except for FGFR-4, multiple splice isoforms, and FGFR-5, which lacks an intracellular kinase domain. There is growing evidence that FGFRs can be important for regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The overexpression of a dominant negative form of FGFR-1 in β cells leads to diabetes in mice, which thus implies that proper FGF signaling is required for normal β cell function and glycemia maintenance. FGFR-2 appears to be a key molecule during pancreatic development. Moreover, FGFR-4 has been implicated in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis.

FGF-19, has been shown to cause resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin desensitization and to improve insulin, glucose, and lipid profiles in diabetic rodents. Since these effects, at least in part, are mediated through the observed changes in metabolic rates, FGF-19 can be considered as a regulator of energy expenditure.

FGF-21 is preferentially expressed in liver, but an exact knowledge of FGF-21 bioactivity and its mode of action have been lacking to date. FGF-21 is a potent activator of glucose uptake on adipocytes, protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice, and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when therapeutically administered to diabetic rodents.

References to Summary

References to Fibroblast Growth Factor 21

  • Christodoulides C, Dyson P, Sprecher D, Tsintzas K, Karpe F. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists but not ketosis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94 (9):3594-601
  • Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdes P, Gomez-Perez FJ, Meza-Arana CE, Cruz-Bautista I, Arellano-Campos O, Navarrete-Lopez M, Aguilar-Salinas CA. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;163 (3):469-77
  • Dostalova I, Haluzikova D, Haluzik M. Fibroblast growth factor 21: a novel metabolic regulator with potential therapeutic properties in obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2009;58 (1):1-7
  • Dostalova I, Kavalkova P, Haluzikova D, Lacinova Z, Mraz M, Papezova H, Haluzik M. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93 (9):3627-32
  • Fazeli PK, Misra M, Goldstein M, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Fibroblast growth factor-21 may mediate growth hormone resistance in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95 (1):369-74
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Antonellis PJ, Bina HA, Kharitonenkov A, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010 Nov;59 (11):2781-9
  • Fu L, John LM, Adams SH, Yu XX, Tomlinson E, Renz M, Williams PM, Soriano R, Corpuz R, Moffat B, Vandlen R, Simmons L, Foster J, Stephan JP, Tsai SP, Stewart TA. Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes. Endocrinology. 2004 Jun;145(6):2594-603. Epub 2004 Feb 19.
  • Han SH, Choi SH, Cho BJ, Lee Y, Lim S, Park YJ, Moon MK, Lee HK, Kang SW, Han DS, Kim YB, Jang HC, Park KS. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration is associated with residual renal function and insulin resistance in end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Metabolism. 2010 Nov;59 (11):1656-62
  • Harmer NJ, Pellegrini L, Chirgadze D, Fernandez-Recio J, Blundell TL. The crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 reveals novel features of the FGF family and offers a structural basis for its unusual receptor affinity. Biochemistry. 2004 Jan 27;43(3):629-40.
  • Hero M, Dunkel L, Vaaralahti K, Raivio T. Serum FGF21 in Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature: Relationship to Lipid Profile, Onset of Puberty and Growth*. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Feb 1;
  • Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen AR, Krogh-Madsen R, Yfanti C, Akerstrom T, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes. 2009 Dec;58 (12):2797-801
  • Holt JA, Luo G, Billin AN, Bisi J, McNeill YY, Kozarsky KF, Donahee M, Wang da Y, Mansfield TA, Kliewer SA, Goodwin B, Jones SA. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 1;17(13):1581-91. Epub 2003 Jun 18.
  • Jian WX, Peng WH, Jin J, Chen XR, Fang WJ, Wang WX, Qin L, Dong Y, Su Q. Association between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 and diabetic nephropathy. Metabolism. 2012 Jun;61 (6):853-9
  • Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova TL, Koester A, Ford AM, Micanovic R, Galbreath EJ, Sandusky GE, Hammond LJ, Moyers JS, Owens RA, Gromada J, Brozinick JT, Hawkins ED, Wroblewski VJ, Li DS, Mehrbod F, Jaskunas SR, Shanafelt AB. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005 Jun;115(6):1627-35. Epub 2005 May 2.
  • Kotulak T, Drapalova J, Kopecky P, Lacinova Z, Kramar P, Riha H, Netuka I, Maly J, Housa D, Blaha J, Svacina S, Haluzik M. Increased circulating and epicardial adipose tissue mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 after cardiac surgery: possible role in postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance. Physiol Res. 2011;60 (5):757-67
  • Li H, Bao Y, Xu A, Pan X, Lu J, Wu H, Lu H, Xiang K, Jia W. Serum fibrobl
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