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Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mouse/Rat ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:FGF-21, UNQ3115/PRO10196
  • Species:Mouse, Rat
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD291108200R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Serum

Sample Requirements

mouse samples: 7 µl/well
rat samples: 50 µl/well

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

40–2560 pg/ml

Limit of Detection

18.4 pg/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

mouse samples CV = 8.4%
rat samples CV = 8.5%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

mouse samples CV = 8.7%
rat samples CV = 6%

Spiking Recovery

mouse samples 98.9%
rat samples 104.5

Dilutation Linearity

mouse samples 99.8%
rat samples 103.7%

Crossreactivity

  • bovine Weak reactivity (recom. dilution 1:3)
  • cat Yes (recommended dilution 1:3)
  • dog Non-detectable
  • horse Non-detectable
  • goat Yes (recommended dilution 1:6)
  • hamster Yes (recommended dilution 1:12)
  • human Non-detectable
  • monkey Non-detectable
  • rabbit Non-detectable
  • chicken Not tested
  • mouse Yes
  • rat Yes
  • sheep Yes (recommended dilution 1:3)
  • pig Yes (recommended dilution 1:3)
Summary

Research topic

Animal studies, Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Energy metabolism and body weight regulation

Summary

The FGFs are a family of more than 20 small (~17–26 kDa) secreted peptides. The initial characterization of these proteins focused on their ability to stimulate fibroblast proliferation. This mitogenic activity was mediated through FGF receptors (FGFRs) 1, 2, or 3. A fourth closely related tyrosine kinase receptor (FGFR4) was able to bind the FGFs but did not lead to a mitogenic response.

FGFs modulate cellular activity via at least 5 distinct subfamilies of high-affinity FGF receptors (FGFRs): FGFR-1, –2, –3, and –4, all with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and, except for FGFR-4, multiple splice isoforms, and FGFR-5, which lacks an intracellular kinase domain. There is growing evidence that FGFRs can be important for regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The overexpression of a dominant negative form of FGFR-1 in β cells leads to diabetes in mice, which thus implies that proper FGF signaling is required for normal β cell function and glycemia maintenance. FGFR-2 appears to be a key molecule during pancreatic development. Moreover, FGFR-4 has been implicated in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis.

FGF-19, has been shown to cause resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin desensitization and to improve insulin, glucose, and lipid profiles in diabetic rodents. Since these effects, at least in part, are mediated through the observed changes in metabolic rates, FGF-19 can be considered as a regulator of energy expenditure.

FGF-21 is preferentially expressed in liver, but an exact knowledge of FGF-21 bioactivity and its mode of action have been lacking to date. FGF-21 is a potent activator of glucose uptake on adipocytes, protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice, and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when therapeutically administered to diabetic rodents.

References to Product

References

  • Bookout AL, de Groot MH, Owen BM, Lee S, Gautron L, Lawrence HL, Ding X, Elmquist JK, Takahashi JS, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA. FGF21 regulates metabolism and circadian behavior by acting on the nervous system. Nat Med. 2013 Sep;19 (9):1147-52
  • Bornstein S, Brown SA, Le PT, Wang X, DeMambro V, Horowitz MC, MacDougald O, Baron R, Lotinun S, Karsenty G, Wei W, Ferron M, Kovacs CS, Clemmons D, Wan Y, Rosen CJ. FGF-21 and skeletal remodeling during and after lactation in C57BL/6J mice. Endocrinology. 2014 Sep;155 (9):3516-26
  • Chun S, Bamba T, Suyama T, Ishijima T, Fukusaki E, Abe K, Nakai Y. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11 (5):e0155386
  • Cornu M, Oppliger W, Albert V, Robitaille AM, Trapani F, Quagliata L, Fuhrer T, Sauer U, Terracciano L, Hall MN. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 12;111 (32):11592-9
  • Cui Y, Giesy SL, Hassan M, Davis K, Zhao S, Boisclair YR. Hepatic FGF21 production is increased in late pregnancy in the mouse. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp. 2014 Aug 1;307 (3):R290-8
  • Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Heuer JG, Gupta A, Cramer M, Zhang T, Shigenaga JK, Patzek SM, Chan ZW, Moser A, Bina H, Kharitonenkov A. FGF21 Is Increased by Inflammatory Stimuli and Protects Leptin-Deficient ob/ob Mice from the Toxicity of Sepsis. Endocrinology. 2012 Jun;153 (6):2689-700
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Antonellis PJ, Bina HA, Kharitonenkov A, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010 Nov;59 (11):2781-9
  • Honda Y, Kessoku T, Ogawa Y, Tomeno W, Imajo K, Fujita K, Yoneda M, Takizawa T, Saito S, Nagashima Y, Nakajima A. Pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator, improves the pathogenesis in a rodent model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 14;7:42477. doi: 10.1038/srep42477
  • Jornayvaz FR, Jurczak MJ, Lee HY, Birkenfeld AL, Frederick DW, Zhang D, Zhang XM, Samuel VT, Shulman GI. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;299 (5):E808-15
  • Laeger T, Albarado DC, Burke SJ, Trosclair L, Hedgepeth JW, Berthoud HR, Gettys TW, Collier JJ, Munzberg H, Morrison CD. Metabolic Responses to Dietary Protein Restriction Require an Increase in FGF21 that Is Delayed by the Absence of GCN2. Cell Rep. 2016 Jul 6;
  • Laeger T, Henagan TM, Albarado DC, Redman LM, Bray GA, Noland RC, Munzberg H, Hutson SM, Gettys TW, Schwartz MW, Morrison CD. FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep 2;124 (9):3913-22
  • Osorio JS, Trevisi E, Ballou MA, Bertoni G, Drackley JK, Loor JJ. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves. J Dairy Sci. 2013 Jun;96 (6):3573-87
  • Owen BM, Bookout AL, Ding X, Lin VY, Atkin SD, Gautron L, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ. FGF21 contributes to neuroendocrine control of female reproduction. Nat Med. 2013 Sep;19 (9):1153-6
  • Patel V, Adya R, Chen J, Ramanjaneya M, Bari MF, Bhudia SK, Hillhouse EW, Tan BK, Randeva HS. Novel insights into the cardio-protective effects of FGF21 in lean and obese rat hearts. PLoS One. 2014;9 (2):e87102
  • Quesada-Lopez T, Cereijo R, Turatsinze JV, Planavila A, Cairo M, Gavalda-Navarro A, Peyrou M, Moure R, Iglesias R, Giralt M, Eizirik DL, Villarroya F. The lipid sensor GPR120 promotes brown fat activation and FGF21 release from adipocytes. Nat Commun. 2016 Nov 17;7:13479
  • Vandanmagsar et al. Impaired Mitochondrial Fat Oxidation Induces FGF21 in Muscle. Cell Reports. May 24, 2016;15:1–14
  • Villarroya J, Flachs P, Redondo-Angulo I, Giralt M, Medrikova D, Villarroya F, Kopecky J, Planavila A. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and the Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Lipids. 2014 Sep 10;
  • von Holstein-Rathlou S, BonDurant LD, Peltekian L, Naber MC, Yin TC, Claflin KE, Urizar AI, Madsen AN, Ratner C, Holst B, Karstoft K, Vandenbeuch A, Anderson CB, Cassell MD, Thompson AP, Solomon TP, Rahmouni K, Kinnamon SC, Pieper AA, Gillum MP, Potthoff MJ. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver. Cell Metab. 2016 Feb 9;23 (2):335-43
  • Chen X, Ward SC, Cederbaum AI, Xiong H, Lu Y. Alcoholic fatty liver is enhanced in CYP2A5 knockout mice: The role of the PPARα-FGF21 axis. Toxicology. 2017 Mar 15;379:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.01.016
  • Zhou M, Luo J, Chen M, Yang H, Learned RM, DePaoli AM, Tian H, Ling L. Mouse species-specific control of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism by FGF19/FGF15. J Hepatol. 2017 Feb 9. pii: S0168-8278(17)30062-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.01.027
References to Summary

References to Fibroblast Growth Factor 21

  • Christodoulides C, Dyson P, Sprecher D, Tsintzas K, Karpe F. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists but not ketosis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94 (9):3594-601
  • Cuevas-Ramos D, Almeda-Valdes P, Gomez-Perez FJ, Meza-Arana CE, Cruz-Bautista I, Arellano-Campos O, Navarrete-Lopez M, Aguilar-Salinas CA. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;163 (3):469-77
  • Dostalova I, Haluzikova D, Haluzik M. Fibroblast growth factor 21: a novel metabolic regulator with potential therapeutic properties in obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res. 2009;58 (1):1-7
  • Dostalova I, Kavalkova P, Haluzikova D, Lacinova Z, Mraz M, Papezova H, Haluzik M. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93 (9):3627-32
  • Fazeli PK, Misra M, Goldstein M, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Fibroblast growth factor-21 may mediate growth hormone resistance in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95 (1):369-74
  • Fisher FM, Chui PC, Antonellis PJ, Bina HA, Kharitonenkov A, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010 Nov;59 (11):2781-9
  • Fu L, John LM, Adams SH, Yu XX, Tomlinson E, Renz M, Williams PM, Soriano R, Corpuz R, Moffat B, Vandlen R, Simmons L, Foster J, Stephan JP, Tsai SP, Stewart TA. Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes. Endocrinology. 2004 Jun;145(6):2594-603. Epub 2004 Feb 19.
  • Han SH, Choi SH, Cho BJ, Lee Y, Lim S, Park YJ, Moon MK, Lee HK, Kang SW, Han DS, Kim YB, Jang HC, Park KS. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration is associated with residual renal function and insulin resistance in end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis. Metabolism. 2010 Nov;59 (11):1656-62
  • Harmer NJ, Pellegrini L, Chirgadze D, Fernandez-Recio J, Blundell TL. The crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 reveals novel features of the FGF family and offers a structural basis for its unusual receptor affinity. Biochemistry. 2004 Jan 27;43(3):629-40.
  • Hero M, Dunkel L, Vaaralahti K, Raivio T. Serum FGF21 in Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature: Relationship to Lipid Profile, Onset of Puberty and Growth*. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Feb 1;
  • Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen AR, Krogh-Madsen R, Yfanti C, Akerstrom T, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes. 2009 Dec;58 (12):2797-801
  • Holt JA, Luo G, Billin AN, Bisi J, McNeill YY, Kozarsky KF, Donahee M, Wang da Y, Mansfield TA, Kliewer SA, Goodwin B, Jones SA. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 1;17(13):1581-91. Epub 2003 Jun 18.
  • Jian WX, Peng WH, Jin J, Chen XR, Fang WJ, Wang WX, Qin L, Dong Y, Su Q. Association between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 and diabetic nephropathy. Metabolism. 2012 Jun;61 (6):853-9
  • Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova TL, Koester A, Ford AM, Micanovic R, Galbreath EJ, Sandusky GE, Hammond LJ, Moyers JS, Owens RA, Gromada J, Brozinick JT, Hawkins ED, Wroblewski VJ, Li DS, Mehrbod F, Jaskunas SR, Shanafelt AB. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005 Jun;115(6):1627-35. Epub 2005 May 2.
  • Kotulak T, Drapalova J, Kopecky P, Lacinova Z, Kramar P, Riha H, Netuka I, Maly J, Housa D, Blaha J, Svacina S, Haluzik M. Increased circulating and epicardial adipose tissue mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 after cardiac surgery: possible role in postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance. Physiol Res. 2011;60 (5):757-67
  • Li H, Bao Y, Xu A, Pan X, Lu J, Wu H, Lu H, Xiang K, Jia W. Serum fibrobl
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