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Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted from B cells of islet of Langerhans in the pancreas with a molecular weight of about 5,800 and pI 5.4. It is consisted of 2 chains, A and B. It has 3 disulfide bonds formed between A6 and A11, A7 and B7, and A20 and B19. Insulin exists as a dimer molecule in acidic to neutral solution without Zn ion, and as a hexamer including two Zn ions in neutral solution if Zn ions are present. Main targets of insulin are liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Insulin actions in these targets are as follows. In the liver, it promotes glycogenesis, protein synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, carbohydrate utilization, and inhibition of gluconeogenesis. In the muscle, it promotes membrane permeability for carbohydrates, amino acids and K ion, glycogenesis, protein synthesis, while inhibits protein degradation. In the adipose tissue, it promotes membrane permeability for glucose and fatty acid synthesis. A precursor of insulin, called proinsulin with a single polypeptide chain, is first synthesized in the cell, then sulfide bonds are formed, and finally by enzymatic cutting at two sites, active insulin and c-peptide (connecting peptide) are formed. Potency of an insulin preparation was originally determined by bioassay. However, whole body bioassay inevitably shows poor precision owing to individual variation. WHO issued 1st International Standard for human insulin in 1986 which has the potency of 26 IU/mg (0.038 mg/IU). In the same year, 1st International Standard of bovine insulin, the potency of which is 25.7 IU/mg, and Porcine insulin 1st International Standard, 26 IU/mg, were provided. Before these standards, in 1974, 1st International Reference Preparation of human insulin for immunoassay was provided as 3 IU/ampoule. Based on the above data, if the biological activity of insulin per molecule is the same among various animal species, potencies of animal insulin might be calculated from their molecular weights. But, so far, we do not have experimental proof about this. As the molecular weights of insulin of various animals are nearly the same, and the differences are within 1%, there may be no critical fault if we think that the general potency of insulin is 26 IU/mg. Rat and mouse have two molecular species of insulin, type 1 and type 2. Amino acid sequences of these molecular species are same between rat and mouse. But as their ratios are different between these two animal species, it is recommended to use standard preparation derived from each animals.

15 results found in Immunoassays
3 results found in Proteins

Immunoassays
Product Size Price
Insulin (RTU) Mouse ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN-011RUR 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Canine ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN012TR 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Hamster Standard

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHASIN-001R 5x 250 µl
 
Insulin Human ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RIS006R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Human ELISA (Multispecies specificity)

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSCYK060R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Mouse ELISA High Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI005R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Mouse ELISA Ultra Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI007R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Mouse ELISA Wide Range

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI003R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Mouse/Rat ELISA

Type: Competitive ELISA

RA19004R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Mouse/Rat ELISA (5x96 wells)

Type: Competitive ELISA

RA19004-480R 5x 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Porcine ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

RSHAKRIN013TR 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Rat ELISA

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RTC018R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Rat Elisa High Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI006R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Rat ELISA Ultra Sensitive

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI008R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Insulin Rat ELISA Wide Range

Type: Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody

RAI004R 96 wells (1 kit)
 
Proteins
Product Size Price
Insulin Porcine

RP1764681000 1 g
RP1764680025 25 mg
RP1764680250 250 mg