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MxA Protein Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Myxovirus resistance protein 1
  • Species:Human
Cat. No. Size Price

Availability on Request RD194349220R 96 wells (1 kit) $756
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Cat # changed from RD194349200R to RD194349220R


Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody


Whole blood, COVID-19


At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.


Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

0.375–12 ng/ml

Limit of Detection

0.001 ng/ml

Intra-assay (Within-Run)

n = 8; CV = 4.7%

Inter-assay (Run-to-Run)

n = 5; CV = 7.0%

Spiking Recovery


Dilution Linearity




  • It is intended for research use only.
  • The total assay time is less than 3 hours.
  • The kit measures MxA protein in whole blood (cell lysate).
  • Assay format is 96 wells.
  • Standard is native MxA protein based.
  • Components of the kit are provided ready to use, concentrated or lyophilized

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Sepsis, COVID-19


Human MxA Protein (Myxovirus resistance protein 1), the product of the MX1 gene, is a 76-kDa protein consisting of 662 amino acid residues and belonging to the dynamic superfamily of large GTPase. MxA Protein plays an important role in antiviral activity in cells against a wide variety of viruses, including influenza, parainfluenza, measles, coxsackie, hepatitis B virus, and Thogoto virus. The viruses are inhibited by MxA protein at an early stage in their life cycle, soon after host cell entry and before genome amplification. The mouse MxA (MX1 GTPase) accumulates in the cell nucleus where it associates with nuclear bodies and inhibits influenza and Thogoto viruses known to replicate in the nucleus. The human MxA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum as well. The membrane compartment of endoplasmatic reticulum seems to provide an interaction platform that facilitates viral target recognition. MxA appears to detect viral infection by sensing and trapping nucleocapsid-like structures. As a consequence, the viral components become unavailable for the generation of new virus particles. The expression of viral MxA Protein is induced exclusively and in a dose-dependent manner by IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not by IFN-gamma, IL-1, TNF-alpha or other cytokines. In clinical diagnostics, MxA protein may offer advantages as a marker for viral infection over the other induced proteins such as 2‘, 5‘-oligoadenylate synthetase, because of its very low basal concentration and long half-life. Several clinical studies have reported on the possible use of MxA protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a marker distinguishing viral from bacterial disease, and reliable marker for type I IFN bioavaibility during IFN treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and multiple sclerosis.

Product References (2)


  • Lau AY, Ip WK, Au C, Lau KK, Wong W, Yip KK, Yeung J, Li SH, Li P, Lee R, Siu D, Abrigo J, Wong A, Mok V, Chan E. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta and clinical response in Chinese patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2017 Oct 9;3(4):2055217317733485. doi: 10.1177/2055217317733485. eCollection 2017 Oct-Dec. PubMed PMID: 29051830. PubMed CentralPMCID: PMC5637981. See more on PubMed
  • Mouchès C, Candresse T, Barroso G, Saillard C, Wroblewski H, Bové JM. Gene for spiralin, the major membrane protein of the helical mollicute Spiroplasma citri: cloning and expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985 Dec;164(3):1094-9. doi: 10.1128/jb.164.3.1094-1099.1985. PubMed PMID: 2999069. PubMed CentralPMCID: PMC219302. See more on PubMed
Summary References (10)

References to MxA Protein

  • Bachur RG, Harper MB. Predictive model for serious bacterial infections among infants younger than 3 months of age. Pediatrics. 2001 Aug;108 (2):311-6
  • Chieux V, Hober D, Harvey J, Lion G, Lucidarme D, Forzy G, Duhamel M, Cousin J, Ducoulombier H, Wattre P. The MxA protein levels in whole blood lysates of patients with various viral infections. J Virol Methods. 1998 Feb;70 (2):183-91
  • Haller O, Kochs G. IFN-induced mx proteins: dynamin-like GTPases with antiviral activity. Traffic. 2002 Oct;3 (10):710-7
  • Haller O, Staeheli P, Kochs G. IFN-induced Mx proteins in antiviral host defense. Biochimie. 2007 Jun-Jul;89 (6-7):812-8
  • Halminen M, Ilonen J, Julkunen I, Ruuskanen O, Simell O, Makela MJ. Expression of MxA protein in blood lymphocytes discriminates between viral and bacterial infections in febrile children. Pediatr Res. 1997 May;41 (5):647-50
  • Huppertz HI, Becker K, Kreth HW. Clinical value of measuring the IFN-induced enzyme 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in children. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Apr;81 (4):329-34
  • Koskenvuo MM, Halminen M, Blomqvist M, Vainionpaa R, Ilonen J, Julkunen I, Salmi TT, Makela MJ. Expression of MxA protein in blood lymphocytes of children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006 Dec;23 (8):649-60
  • Nakabayashi M, Adachi Y, Itazawa T, Okabe Y, Kanegane H, Kawamura M, Tomita A, Miyawaki T. MxA-based recognition of viral illness in febrile children by a whole blood assay. Pediatr Res. 2006 Dec;60 (6):770-4
  • Simon A, Fah J, Haller O, Staeheli P. IFN-regulated Mx genes are not responsive to interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and other cytokines. J Virol. 1991 Feb;65 (2):968-71
  • Vallittu AM, Eralinna JP, Ilonen J, Salmi AA, Waris M. MxA protein assay for optimal monitoring of IFN-beta bioactivity in the treatment of MS patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Jul;118 (1):12-7
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