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Progranulin Human ELISA

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody
  • Other names:Granulin Epithelin Precursor, Proepithelin, Acrogranin
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RMEE103R 96 wells (1 kit)
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody

Applications

Serum, Plasma

Sample Requirements

10 µl/well

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

Store the complete kit at 2–8°C. Under these conditions, the kit is stable until the expiration date (see label on the box).

Calibration Curve

Calibration Range

75–2500 pg/ml

Limit of Detection

0.018 ng/ml

Summary

Features

  • is suited for Progranulin determination in Serum and Plasma samples
  • is extremely sensitive (18 pg/ml) and, thus allows measurements in cell culture media too and in specimens others than serum e.g. in Cerebrospinal fluid, Amnion fluid, Saliva, Urine, Breast milk - is fast: incubation time a total of 2 hours
  • Single Standards with 75, 250, 750, 1500, 2500 pg/ml human Progranulin are provided in the Kit
  • 2 Control Sera are provided for quality control purposes according GLP
  • is calibrated with recombinant Progranulin
  • Microtiter plates are separately breakapart, tests can be adapted to individual requirements

Research topic

Energy metabolism and body weight regulation, Neural tissue markers, Oncology

Summary

Progranulin is also known as Granulin Epithelin Precursor, Proepithelin or Acrogranin. It is a 68.5 kDa protein, consisting of 593 amino acids (inclusive Signalpeptid), which appears in vivo in strongly glycosylated form and therefore has a size of approximately 90 kDa. Progranulin has seven conserved domains, which are separated by linker sequences. By means of proteolytic cleavage, catalyzed by serine proteases like e.g. elastase, 6–25 kDa large fragments result, that are called Granulines or Epithelines. Progranulin is expressed and secreted in particular in strongly proliferating tissues such as adenoid tissue, spleen, skin epithelium, gastrointestinal mucous membranes, haematopoietic cells and in tumor cells. Until now no specific receptors, which would obtain the effect of Progranulin or the Granulines are known. Progranulin seems to be a factor, which affects the wound healing positively. In case of skin lesions the expression is increased in ceratinocytes, in macrophages and in neutrophile cells. Progranulin affects the wound healing indirectly by activation of macrophages and stimulation of angiogenesis in the damaged tissue. The physiological effects of Progranulin and Granulines are oppositional. Progranulin can restrain TNF mediated pro-inflammatory processes. On the other hand the Granulines seem to stimulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The influence of Progranulin on inflammatory processes could be shown also in arteriosclerotic plaques. Here Progranulin is expressed by smooth muscle cells and affects the migration of monocytes and smooth muscle cells. In the central nervous system Progranulin is expressed in microglia and neurons (in neocortical and hippocampal pyramid cells as well as in purkinje cells in the cerebellum). On mRNA level a clear increase of Progranulin expression could be shown during infections or injuries of the CNS, for example in mucopolysaccha­ridosis type I and IIIB, in viral inflammations of CNS, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in Alzheimer's di­sease. Beyond that Progranulin seems to be of relevance in the development of sex specific differences during pre- and postnatal development and also for the neural plasticity in adults.

Product References (2)

References

  • Denk J, Oberhauser F, Kornhuber J, Wiltfang J, Fassbender K, Schroeter ML,Volk AE, Diehl-Schmid J, Prudlo J, Danek A, Landwehrmeyer B, Lauer M, Otto M,Jahn H; FTLDc study group. Specific serum and CSF microRNA profiles distinguishsporadic behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia compared with Alzheimerpatients and cognitively healthy controls. PLoS One. 2018 May 10;13(5):e0197329. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197329. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29746584;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5945001. See more on PubMed
  • Eichelmann F, Weikert C, di Giuseppe R, Biemann R, Isermann B, Schulze MB,Boeing H, Aleksandrova K. Methodological utility of chemerin as a novel biomarkerof immunity and metabolism. Endocr Connect. 2017 Jul;6(5):340-347. doi:10.1530/EC-17-0098. Epub 2017 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 28592510; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC5510453. See more on PubMed
Summary References (9)

References to Progranulin

  • Daniel R, Daniels E, He Z, Bateman A. Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Dev Dyn. 2003 Aug;227 (4):593-9
  • Daniel R, He Z, Carmichael KP, Halper J, Bateman A. Cellular localization of gene expression for progranulin. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000 Jul;48 (7):999-1009
  • Eriksen JL, Mackenzie IR. Progranulin: normal function and role in neurodegeneration. J Neurochem. 2008 Jan;104 (2):287-97
  • Finch N, Baker M, Crook R, Swanson K, Kuntz K, Surtees R, Bisceglio G, Rovelet-Lecrux A, Boeve B, Petersen RC, Dickson DW, Younkin SG, Deramecourt V, Crook J, Graff-Radford NR, Rademakers R. Plasma progranulin levels predict progranulin mutation status in frontotemporal dementia patients and asymptomatic family members. Brain. 2009 Mar;132 (Pt 3):583-91
  • Ghidoni R, Benussi L, Glionna M, Franzoni M, Binetti G. Low plasma progranulin levels predict progranulin mutations in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Neurology. 2008 Oct 14;71 (16):1235-9
  • Kojima Y, Ono K, Inoue K, Takagi Y, Kikuta K, Nishimura M, Yoshida Y, Nakashima Y, Matsumae H, Furukawa Y, Mikuni N, Nobuyoshi M, Kimura T, Kita T, Tanaka M. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Sep;206 (1):102-8
  • Suzuki M, Lee HC, Kayasuga Y, Chiba S, Nedachi T, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Roles of progranulin in sexual differentiation of the developing brain and adult neurogenesis. J Reprod Dev. 2009 Aug;55 (4):351-5
  • Youn BS, Bang SI, Kloting N, Park JW, Lee N, Oh JE, Pi KB, Lee TH, Ruschke K, Fasshauer M, Stumvoll M, Bluher M. Serum progranulin concentrations may be associated with macrophage infiltration into omental adipose tissue. Diabetes. 2009 Mar;58 (3):627-36
  • Zhu J, Nathan C, Jin W, Sim D, Ashcroft GS, Wahl SM, Lacomis L, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Wright CD, Ding A. Conversion of proepithelin to epithelins: roles of SLPI and elastase in host defense and wound repair. Cell. 2002 Dec 13;111 (6):867-78
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