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MxA Protein Human E. coli

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Recombinant protein
  • Source:E. coli
  • Other names:Myxovirus resistance protein 1
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


New RD172349100 0.1 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Recombinant protein

Description

Total 668 AA. MW 76.3 kDa (calculated). UniProtKB acc. No. P20591 (Met1-Gly662). C-terminal His-tag (6 extra AA). Protein identity confirmed by LC-MS/MS.

Amino Acid Sequence

MVVSEVDIAKADPAAASHPLLLNGDATVAQKNPGSVAENNLCSQYEEKVRPCIDLIDSLRALGVEQDLALPAIAVIGDQSSGKSSVLEALSGVALPRGSGIVTRCPLVLKLKKLVNEDKWRGKVSYQDYEIEISDASEVEKEINKAQNAIAGEGMGISHELITLEISSRDVPDLTLIDLPGITRVAVGNQPADIGYKIKTLIKKYIQRQETISLVVVPSNVDIATTEALSMAQEVDPEGDRTIGILTKPDLVDKGTEDKVVDVVRNLVFHLKKGYMIVKCRGQQEIQDQLSLSEALQREKIFFENHPYFRDLLEEGKATVPCLAEKLTSELITHICKSLPLLENQIKETHQRITEELQKYGVDIPEDENEKMFFLIDKVNAFNQDITALMQGEETVGEEDIRLFTRLRHEFHKWSTIIENNFQEGHKILSRKIQKFENQYRGRELPGFVNYRTFETIVKQQIKALEEPAVDMLHTVTDMVRLAFTDVSIKNFEEFFNLHRTAKSKIEDIRAEQEREGEKLIRLHFQMEQIVYCQDQVYRGALQKVREKELEEEKKKKSWDFGAFQSSSATDSSMEEIFQHLMAYHQEASKRISSHIPLIIQFFMLQTYGQQLQKAMLQLLQDKDTYSWLLKERSDTSDKRKFLKERLARLTQARRRLAQFPGHHHHHH

Source

E. coli

Purity

Purity as determined by densitometric image analysis: > 90%

SDS-PAGE Gel

12 % SDS-PAGE separation of Human MxA (E.coli):

  1. M.W. marker – 14, 21, 31, 45, 66, 97 kDa
  2. Reduced and boiled sample, 2.5 μg/lane
  3. Non-reduced and non-boiled sample, 2.5 μg/lane

Endotoxin

< 0.1 EU/μg

Formulation

Filtered (0.4 μm) and lyophilized from 0.5 mg/ml solution in 20 mM Tris buffer, 50 mM NaCl, 5% (w/v) trehalose, pH 7.5.

Reconstitution

Add deionized water to prepare a working stock solution of approximately 0.5 mg/ml and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely at 37°C.

Applications

Western blotting, ELISA

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

Store the lyophilized protein at –80 °C. Lyophilized protein remains stable until the expiry date when stored at –80 °C. Aliquot reconstituted protein to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store at –80 °C for long term storage. Reconstituted protein can be stored at 4 °C for three days.

Quality Control Test

BCA to determine quantity of the protein.

SDS PAGE to determine purity of the protein.

LAL to determine quantity of endotoxin.

Note

This product is intended for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Sepsis, COVID-19

Summary

Human MxA Protein (Myxovirus resistance protein 1), the product of the MX1 gene, is a 76-kDa protein consisting of 662 amino acid residues and belonging to the dynamic superfamily of large GTPase. MxA Protein plays an important role in antiviral activity in cells against a wide variety of viruses, including influenza, parainfluenza, measles, coxsackie, hepatitis B virus, and Thogoto virus. The viruses are inhibited by MxA protein at an early stage in their life cycle, soon after host cell entry and before genome amplification. The mouse MxA (MX1 GTPase) accumulates in the cell nucleus where it associates with nuclear bodies and inhibits influenza and Thogoto viruses known to replicate in the nucleus. The human MxA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum as well. The membrane compartment of endoplasmatic reticulum seems to provide an interaction platform that facilitates viral target recognition. MxA appears to detect viral infection by sensing and trapping nucleocapsid-like structures. As a consequence, the viral components become unavailable for the generation of new virus particles. The expression of viral MxA Protein is induced exclusively and in a dose-dependent manner by IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not by IFN-gamma, IL-1, TNF-alpha or other cytokines. In clinical diagnostics, MxA protein may offer advantages as a marker for viral infection over the other induced proteins such as 2‘, 5‘-oligoadenylate synthetase, because of its very low basal concentration and long half-life. Several clinical studies have reported on the possible use of MxA protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a marker distinguishing viral from bacterial disease, and reliable marker for type I IFN bioavaibility during IFN treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and multiple sclerosis.

Summary References (10)

References to MxA Protein

  • Bachur RG, Harper MB. Predictive model for serious bacterial infections among infants younger than 3 months of age. Pediatrics. 2001 Aug;108 (2):311-6
  • Chieux V, Hober D, Harvey J, Lion G, Lucidarme D, Forzy G, Duhamel M, Cousin J, Ducoulombier H, Wattre P. The MxA protein levels in whole blood lysates of patients with various viral infections. J Virol Methods. 1998 Feb;70 (2):183-91
  • Haller O, Kochs G. IFN-induced mx proteins: dynamin-like GTPases with antiviral activity. Traffic. 2002 Oct;3 (10):710-7
  • Haller O, Staeheli P, Kochs G. IFN-induced Mx proteins in antiviral host defense. Biochimie. 2007 Jun-Jul;89 (6-7):812-8
  • Halminen M, Ilonen J, Julkunen I, Ruuskanen O, Simell O, Makela MJ. Expression of MxA protein in blood lymphocytes discriminates between viral and bacterial infections in febrile children. Pediatr Res. 1997 May;41 (5):647-50
  • Huppertz HI, Becker K, Kreth HW. Clinical value of measuring the IFN-induced enzyme 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in children. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Apr;81 (4):329-34
  • Koskenvuo MM, Halminen M, Blomqvist M, Vainionpaa R, Ilonen J, Julkunen I, Salmi TT, Makela MJ. Expression of MxA protein in blood lymphocytes of children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006 Dec;23 (8):649-60
  • Nakabayashi M, Adachi Y, Itazawa T, Okabe Y, Kanegane H, Kawamura M, Tomita A, Miyawaki T. MxA-based recognition of viral illness in febrile children by a whole blood assay. Pediatr Res. 2006 Dec;60 (6):770-4
  • Simon A, Fah J, Haller O, Staeheli P. IFN-regulated Mx genes are not responsive to interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and other cytokines. J Virol. 1991 Feb;65 (2):968-71
  • Vallittu AM, Eralinna JP, Ilonen J, Salmi AA, Waris M. MxA protein assay for optimal monitoring of IFN-beta bioactivity in the treatment of MS patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Jul;118 (1):12-7
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