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Manufactured by BioVendor

Procalcitonin Canine, Sheep Polyclonal Antibody

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Polyclonal Antibody
  • Other names:PCT
  • Species:Canine
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New RD484488100 0.1 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Polyclonal Antibody

Applications

ELISA

Source of Antigen

E. coli

Hosts

Sheep

Isotype

IgG

Preparation

The antibody was raised in sheep by immunization with the recombinant Canine Procalcitonin.

Amino Acid Sequence

Total 115 AA. MW: 12.7 kDa (calculated). UniProtKB acc.no. P41547 (Ala26-Arg130). N-terminal His-tag 10 extra AA (highlighted).

MKHHHHHHASAPFRSALEGLPDPTALSEKEGRLLLAALVKAYVQRKNELEQEQEQETEGSSLDSSRAKRCSNLSTCVLGTYSKDLNNFHTFSGIGFGAETPGKKRDIASGLERGR

Species Reactivity

Canine. Not yet tested in other species.

Purification Method

Immunoaffinity chromatography on a column with immobilized recombinant Canine Procalcitonin.

Antibody Content

0.1 mg (determined by BCA method, BSA was used as a standard)

Formulation

The antibody is lyophilized in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, 0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.2. AZIDE FREE.

Reconstitution

Add 0.1 ml of deionized water and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely. Slight turbidity may occur after reconstitution, which does not affect activity of the antibody. In this case clarify the solution by centrifugation.

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

The lyophilized antibody remains stable and fully active until the expiry date when stored at –20°C. Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store frozen at –80°C. Reconstituted antibody can be stored at 4°C for a limited period of time; it does not show decline in activity after one week at 4°C.

Quality Control Test

Indirect ELISA – to determine titer of the antibody SDS PAGE – to determine purity of the antibody

Note

This product is for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Immune Response, Infection and Inflammation, Sepsis

Summary

Procalcitonin (PCT) the precursor of the hormone calcitonin is a 116 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 13 kDa. It undergoes successive cleavages in the neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid to form three distinct molecules: calcitonin (32 amino acids); katacalcin (21 amino acids) and N-terminal fragment called aminoprocalcitonin (57 amino acids). Procalcitonin belongs to a group of related proteins including calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II, amylin, adrenomodulin and calcitonin (CAPA peptide family). Synthesis of procalcitonin is regulated gene CALC-1. Under normal metabolic conditions procalcitonin is present in the C-cells of the thyroid gland. The level of procalcitonin in the blood of healthy individuals is low. The risk of local bacterial infection occurs when the value of procalcitonin exceeds 0.25 ng/ml. The risk of systemic bacterial infection occurs when the value of procalcitonin exceeds 0.5 ng/ml. Bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS) has been shown to be a potent inducer of procalcitonin release into systemic circulation. This release is not associated with an increase in calcitonin. Procalcitonin levels increase from 3 to 4 hours, peak at about 6 hours and then plateau for up to 24 hours. In contrast, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels rise between 12 and 18 hours after bacterial challenge. In blood serum, procalcitonin has a half-life of between 25 and 30 hours. A study showed that hepatocytes produce large amounts of procalcitonin following stimulation with TNF-α and IL-6. In acute pancreatitis, procalcitonin closely correlates with the development of pancreatic infections. Since procalcitonin has been reported to be increased in different non-septic conditions such as major trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, rejection after transplantation, cardiogenic shock, severe burns and heat-stroke, the discriminative power of procalcitonin could be hampered in these particular patient categories. A recent study concluded that children with bacterial pneumonia had significantly higher procalcitonin levels than those with a viral aetiology, but there was a significant degree of overlap. Procalcitonin has the greatest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating patients with SIRS from those with sepsis, when compared to IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, CRP and TNF-α. Today procalcitonin is considered to be one of the earliest and most specific markers of sepsis. Areas of investigation: Sepsis, Bacterial infection, Septic shock, Inflammation.

References to Summary

References to Procalcitonin

  • Arkader R, Troster EJ, Lopes MR, Junior RR, Carcillo JA, Leone C, Okay TS. Procalcitonin does discriminate between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Feb;91 (2):117-20
  • Carrol ED, Thomson AP, Hart CA. Procalcitonin as a marker of sepsis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002 Jul;20 (1):1-9
  • Dumea R, Siriopol D, Hogas S, Mititiuc I, Covic A. Procalcitonin: diagnostic value in systemic infections in chronic kidney disease or renal transplant patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014 Feb;46 (2):461-8
  • Floras AN, Holowaychuk MK, Hodgins DC, Marr HS, Birkenheuer A, Sharif S, Bersenas AM, Bienzle D. Investigation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of canine procalcitonin. J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Mar-Apr;28 (2):599-602
  • Giunti M, Peli A, Battilani M, Zacchini S, Militerno G, Otto CM. Evaluation of CALC-I gene (CALCA) expression in tissues of dogs with signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Ant. 2010 Oct;20 (5):523-7
  • Harbarth S, Holeckova K, Froidevaux C, Pittet D, Ricou B, Grau GE, Vadas L, Pugin J. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in critically ill patients admitted with suspected sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Aug 1;164 (3):396-402
  • Kang YA, Kwon SY, Yoon HI, Lee JH, Lee CT. Role of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in differentiation of tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia. Korean J Intern Med. 2009 Dec;24 (4):337-42
  • Kuzi S, Aroch I, Peleg K, Karnieli O, Klement E, Dank G. Canine procalcitonin messenger RNA expression. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008 Sep;20 (5):629-33
  • Lee H. Procalcitonin as a biomarker of infectious diseases. Korean J Intern Med. 2013 May;28 (3):285-91
  • Lee JY, Hwang SJ, Shim JW, Jung HL, Park MS, Woo HY, Shim JY. Clinical significance of serum procalcitonin in patients with community-acquired lobar pneumonia. Korean J Lab Med. 2010 Aug;30 (4):406-13
  • Maruna P, Nedelnikova K, Gurlich R. Physiology and genetics of procalcitonin. Physiol Res. 2000;49 Suppl 1:S57-61
  • Meisner M. Update on procalcitonin measurements. Ann Lab Med. 2014 Jul;34 (4):263-73
  • Nanda N, Juthani-Mehta M. Novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection-a systematic review. Biomark Insights. 2009;4:111-21
  • Pecile P, Miorin E, Romanello C, Falleti E, Valent F, Giacomuzzi F, Tenore A. Procalcitonin: a marker of severity of acute pyelonephritis among children. Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114 (2):e249-54
  • Pourakbari B, Mamishi S, Zafari J, Khairkhah H, Ashtiani MH, Abedini M, Afsharpaiman S, Rad SS. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010 May-Jun;14 (3):252-5
  • Sand M, Trullen XV, Bechara FG, Pala XF, Sand D, Landgrafe G, Mann B. A prospective bicenter study investigating the diagnostic value of procalcitonin in patients with acute appendicitis. Eur Surg Res. 2009;43 (3):291-7
  • Schneider HG, Lam QT. Procalcitonin for the clinical laboratory: a review. Pathology. 2007 Aug;39 (4):383-90
  • Schuetz P, Albrich W, Mueller B. Procalcitonin for diagnosis of infection and guide to antibiotic decisions: past, present and future. BMC Med. 2011;9:107
  • Schultz MJ, Determann RM. PCT and sTREM-1: the markers of infection in critically ill patients?. Med Sci Monit. 2008 Dec;14 (12):RA241-7
  • Smolkin V, Koren A, Raz R, Colodner R, Sakran W, Halevy R. Procalcitonin as a marker of acute pyelonephritis in infants and children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002 Jun;17 (6):409-12
  • Summah H, Qu JM. Biomarkers: a definite plus in pneumonia. Mediators Inflamm. 2009;2009:675753
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