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Trefoil Factor 3 Human, Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Polyclonal Antibody
  • Other names:TFF3, Intestinal trefoil factor, P1.B, ITF, Polypeptide P1.B, TFI
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD181160100 0.1 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Polyclonal Antibody

Applications

Western blotting, ELISA, Immunohistochemistry

Antibodies Applications

Source of Antigen

E. coli

Hosts

Rabbit

Preparation

The antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with the recombinant Human Trefoil Factor 3.

Amino Acid Sequence

The immunization antigen (7.82 kDa – calculated) is a protein containing 69 AA of recombinant Human Trefoil Factor 3. N-terminal His-tag, 10 extra AA (highlighted).

MKHHHHHHASEEYVGLSANQCAVPAKDRVDCGYPHVTPKECNNRGCCFDSRIPGVPWCFKPLQEAECTF

Species Reactivity

Human. Not yet tested in other species.

Purification Method

Immunoaffinity chromatography on a column with immobilized recombinant Human Trefoil Factor 3.

Antibody Content

0.1 mg (determined by BCA method, BSA was used as a standard)

Formulation

The antibody is lyophilized in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, 0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.2. AZIDE FREE.

Reconstitution

Add 0.2 ml of deionized water and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely. Slight turbidity may occur after reconstitution, which does not affect activity of the antibody. In this case clarify the solution by centrifugation.

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

The lyophilized antibody remains stable and fully active until the expiry date when stored at –20°C.Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store frozen at –80°C. Reconstituted antibody can be stored at 4°C for a limited period of time; it does not show decline in activity after one week at 4°C.

Quality Control Test

Indirect ELISA – to determine titer of the antibody SDS PAGE – to determine purity of the antibody

Note

This product is for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Energy metabolism and body weight regulation, Oncology, Renal disease, Sepsis

Summary

Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3, also known as intestinal trefoil factor) belongs together with TFF1 and TFF2 to a small group of mucin-associated peptides. TFF3 contains seven cysteine residues, six of which form disulfide bonds to create a characteristic three-leafed structure. Due to its compact structure, TFF3 is extremely resistant toward acids, proteolytical cleavage or heat degradation. Monomeric form of TFF3 consists of 60 amino acids and has 6.7 kDa, while the dimer (13.1 kDa) consists of 118 amino acids. TFF3 is expressed mainly in gastrointestinal tract, in the mucous cells of the small and large intestine, where it maintains the integrity of mucous layer and in cooperation with mucins protects the gastrointestinal epithelial cells against various injurious agents. However, TFF3 was also detected in salivary glands, posterior pituitary gland and in the inner ear. Secretion of TFF3 is triggered by the presence of certain inflammation mediators and neurotransmitters. Studies showed that oral administration of TFF3 in rats protects gastric mucosa from damage. Over-expression of TFF3 occurs at the sites of damage of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. peptic ulcer or inflammatory bowel disease. Patients suffering from these diseases have increased levels of TFF3 in serum. TFF3 was reported to be over-expressed also in patients with various neoplasms including intestinal, pancreatic and prostate carcinomas. On the contrary, its expression decreases in thyroid follicular carcinomas. In vitro studies showed that in breast cancer cells, expression of TFF3 is regulated by the level of estrogen. Recent study with human and rodent pancreatic islet β-cells has demonstrated that TFF3 overexpression increases their proliferation. Both major forms of diabetes involve a decline in islet β-cells mass and their controlled expansion would have great potential utility for treatment of this diseases. Another study with rats has shown that urinary TFF3 protein levels were markedly reduced in response to renal tubular injury, while his levels did not respond to nonrenal toxicants.

References to Summary

References to Trefoil Factor 3

  • Bignotti E, Ravaggi A, Tassi RA, Calza S, Rossi E, Falchetti M, Romani C, Bandiera E, Odicino FE, Pecorelli S, Santin AD. Trefoil factor 3: a novel serum marker identified by gene expression profiling in high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Br J Cancer. 2008 Sep 2;99 (5):768-73
  • Fueger PT, Schisler JC, Lu D, Babu DA, Mirmira RG, Newgard CB, Hohmeier HE. Trefoil factor 3 stimulates human and rodent pancreatic islet beta-cell replication with retention of function. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 May;22 (5):1251-9
  • Kawashima T, Okamoto K, Muraguchi T, Oku T, Shidoji Y. Downregulation of trefoil factor 3 gene expression in the colon of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM)-P6 revealed by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Biomed Res. 2010 Jun;31 (3):169-75
  • Lubka M, Shah AA, Blin N, Baus-Loncar M. The intestinal trefoil factor (Tff3), also expressed in the inner ear, interacts with peptides contributing to apoptosis. J Appl Genet. 2009;50 (2):167-71
  • Madsen J, Nielsen O, Tornoe I, Thim L, Holmskov U. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007 May;55 (5):505-13
  • Takano T, Yamada H. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma. Endocr J. 2009;56 (1):9-16
  • Vestergaard EM, Poulsen SS, Gronbaek H, Larsen R, Nielsen AM, Ejskjaer K, Clausen JT, Thim L, Nexo E. Development and evaluation of an ELISA for human trefoil factor 3. Clin Chem. 2002 Oct;48 (10):1689-95
  • Yu Y, Jin H, Holder D, Ozer JS, Villarreal S, Shughrue P, Shi S, Figueroa DJ, Clouse H, Su M, Muniappa N, Troth SP, Bailey W, Seng J, Aslamkhan AG, Thudium D, Sistare FD, Gerhold DL. Urinary biomarkers trefoil factor 3 and albumin enable early detection of kidney tubular injury. Nat Biotechnol. 2010 May;28 (5):470-7
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