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Manufactured by BioVendor

Midkine Human, Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody

  • Regulatory status:RUO
  • Type:Polyclonal Antibody
  • Other names:MK, NEGF-2, Neurite growth promoting factor 2
  • Species:Human
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Cat. No. Size Price


RD181042050 0.05 mg
PubMed Product Details
Technical Data

Type

Polyclonal Antibody

Applications

Western blotting, ELISA

Source of Antigen

E. coli

Hosts

Rabbit

Preparation

The antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with the recombinant Human Midkine.

Amino Acid Sequence

The immunization antigen (146 kDa) is a protein containing 121 amino acid residues of the human Midkine and 10 additional amino acid residues – HisTag (highlighted)

MKHHHHHHHMKKKDKVKKGGPGSECAEWAWGPCTPSSKDCGVGFREGTCGAQTQRIRCRVPCNWKKEFGADCKYKFENWGACDGGTGTKVRQGTLKKARYNAQCQETIRVTKPCTPKTKAKAKAKKGKGKD

Species Reactivity

Human. Not yet tested in other species.

Antibody Content

0.05 mg (determined by BCA method, BSA was used as a standard)

Formulation

The antibody is lyophilized in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, 0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.2. AZIDE FREE.

Reconstitution

Add 0.05 ml of deionized water and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely. Slight turbidity may occur after reconstitution, which does not affect activity of the antibody. In this case clarify the solution by centrifugation.

Shipping

At ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store the product at the temperature recommended below.

Storage/Expiration

The lyophilized antibody remains stable and fully active until the expiry date when stored at –20°C. Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles and store frozen at –80°C. Reconstituted antibody can be stored at 4°C for a limited period of time; it does not show decline in activity after one week at 4°C.

Quality Control Test

Indirect ELISA – to determine titer of the antibody SDS PAGE – to determine purity of the antibody

Note

This product is for research use only.

Summary

Research topic

Oncology

Summary

Midkine (MK, also called neurite growth promoting factor 2, NEGF-2), a product of a retinoic acid responsive gene, is a secreted 13 kDa protein belonging to the family of heparin binding growth/differen­tiation factors. MK shares 45% sequence identity with other member of this family called Pleiotrophin (HB-GAM). Midkine is composed of two domains held together by disulfide linkages. The C-terminally located domain contains two heparin binding sites and is usually responsible for midkine activity. Part of the MK activity is enhanced by dimerization of MK.

Midkine has been found in vertebrates from human to zebrafish and is most strongly expresed in midgestation. In the adult MK expression is restricted. In addition to normal development, MK is also involved in the pathogenesis of diseases e.g. inflammatory diseases, human carcinomas such as esophageal, stomach, colon, pancreatic, thyroid, lung, urinary, hepatocellular, neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, Wilm´s tumor etc. High MK levels are associated with poor prognosis in some type of cancer. The increased expresion in many carcinomas indicates that MK can be applied to the diagnosis of malignancy. Midkine is expressed during the reparative stage of bone fractures, also supresses infection of certain viruses including HIV in target cells. Anti-apoptotic and cell protecting activity of midkine makes it to be a promissing in therapy.

Areas of investigation: Oncology, Inflammatory diseases, Preservation and repair of injured tissues.

Product References (1)

References

  • Dai LC, Xu DY, Yao X, Min LS, Zhao N, Xu BY, Xu ZP, Lu YL. Construction of a fusion protein expression vector MK-EGFP and its subcellular localization in different carcinoma cell lines. World J Gastroenterol . Dec 21;12(47):7649-53 (2006)
Summary References (12)

References to Midkine

  • Choudhuri R., Zhang, H. T., Donnini, S., Ziche, M. and Bicknell, R.: An angiogenic role for the neurokines midkine and pleiotrophin in tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 57, 1814–1819. (1997)
  • Ye, C., Qi, M., Fan, Q.-W., Ito, K., Akiyama, S., Kasai, Y., Matsuyama, M., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Expression of midkine in the early stage of carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Brit. J. Cancer 79, 179–184. (1999)
  • Konishi, N., Nakamura, M., Nakaoka, S., Hiasa, Y., Cho, M., Uemura, H., Hirao, Y., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Immunohistochemical analysis of midkine expression in human prostate carcinoma. Oncology 57,253–257. (1999)
  • Ohta, S., Muramatsu, H., Senda, T., Zou, K., Iwata, H. and Muramatsu, T.: Midkine is expressed during repair of bone fracture and promotes chondrogenesis. J. Bone Miner. Res. 14, 1132–1144. (1999)
  • Ikematsu, S., Yano, A., Aridome, K., Kikuchi, M., Kumai, H., Nagano, H., Okamoto, K., Oda, M., Sakuma, S., Aikou, T., Muramatsu, H., Kadomatsu, K. and Muramatsu, T.: Serum midkine levels are increased in patients with various types of carcinomas. Brit. J. Cancer. 83, 701–706. (2000)
  • Callebaut, C., Nisole, S., Briand, J. P., Krust, B. and Hovanessian, A. G.: Inhibition of HIV infection by the cytokine midkine. Virology 281, 248–264. (2001)
  • Sato, W., Kadomatsu, K., Yuzawa, Y., Muramatsu, H., Hotta, N., Matsuo, S. and Muramatsu T.: Midkine is involved in neutrophil infiltration into the tubulointerstitium in ischemic renal injury. J. Immunol. 167, 3463–3469. (2001)
  • Shimada, H., Nabeya, Y., Okazumi, S., Matsubara, H., Kadomatsu, K., Muramatsu, T., Ikematsu, S., Sakuma, S. and Ochiai, T.: Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Oncol. Rep. 10, 411–414. (2003)
  • Ikematsu, S., Nakagawara, A., Nakamura, Y., Sakuma, S., Wakai, K., Muramatsu, T. and Kadomatsu, K.: Correlation of elevated level of blood midkine with poor prognostic factors of human neuroblastomas. Br. J. Cancer 88, 1522–1526. (2003)
  • Ikematsu, S., Okamoto, K., Yoshida, Y., Oda, M., Sugano-Nagano, H., Ashida, K., Kumai, H., Kadomatsu, K., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T. and Sakuma, S.: High levels of urinary midkine in various cancer patients. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 329–332. (2003)
  • Maruyama, K., Muramatsu, H., Ishiguro, N., and Muramatsu, T.: Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is fundamentally involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 50, 1420–1429.
  • Obata, Y., Kikuchi, S., Lin, Y., Yagyu, K., Muramatsu, T., Kumai, H.: Serum midkine concentrations and gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 96, 54 – 56 (2005)
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