April | Maternal Interleukin-6 levels may predict newborns future memory
Several lines of evidence support the linkage between maternal inflammation during pregnancy and increased probability of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring.
In this study Damien A. Fair and his collagues sought to advance understanding regarding implications of systemic maternal inflammation during pregnancy.
They assessed maternal Interleukin-6 during pregnancy, functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired in newborns, and working memory, an important component of executive function, at 2 years of age.
Their interesting findings highlight the association of maternal inflammation during pregnancy with the developing functional architecture of the brain and emerging executive function in offspring.
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41593-018-0128-y
May | AIRE regulates Interleukin-6 to modulating tumor microenvironment
Early stage prostate cancers are dependent on androgens for their survival and growth and androgen withdrawal causes them to regress.
Progressive prostate cancers eventually acquire androgen independence rendering anti-androgen therapy ineffective.
A team of scientists from Chandigarh in India show in this study that autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is higher in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells than androgen-dependent cells.
These enhanced levels of AIRE modulate the prostate tumor microenvironment by activating Interleukin-6 in androgen-independent cells.
Mouse model of prostate cancer revealed AIRE+ mice forming a palpable tumor however, only a small benign tumor is observed in AIRE- mice.
Additionally, AIRE protects the cancer cells from anticancer drug-induced death and enhances their invasiveness.
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41389-018-0053-7
June | Interleukin-6 induces a changes leading to regulation of insuin signalin and angiogenesis
Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) display insulin resistance and decreased nitric oxide production leading to vasoconstriction and atherosclerosis.
Epigenetic mechanisms such as altered promoter DNA methylation have been demonstrated in development and progression of metabolic disorders and atherosclerosis.
Human endothelial cells when was treated in this study with interleukin-6 and insulin together, or pretreated with Interleukin-6, or under hyperinsulinemic conditions led to a state of vascular insulin resistance.
Interleukin-6 abrogated insulin effects on angiogenesis in 3D spheroid and matrigel assays. IL-6-induced insulin resistance was associated with decreased activity of DNA methyltransferase.
Data from researchers from Manipal Academy of Higher Education indicate a causal link between Interleukin-6-induced changes in DNA methylation, leading to altered expression of critical genes involved in insulin signaling and angiogenesis.
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41374-018-0079-7
July | Using cytokines with selected clinical criteria improves determination of prognosis in advanced renal cell carcinoma
In previous studies in advanced renal cell carcinoma interleukin-6 was found to be predictive of pazopanib treatments benefit.
Researchers form MD Anderson Cancer Center evaluated the prognostic significance of cytokines and angiogenic factors relative to accepted clinical parameters.
Their results show that interleukin-6, osteopontin and TIMP-1 were independently associated with overall survival in multivariable analysis.
A prognostic model incorporating interleukin-6, osteopontin, TIMP-1, tumour burden, and selected clinical criteria increased prognostic accuracy for overall survival determination in advanced renal cell carcinoma patients
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.206
August | Interleukin-6 from stroma cells mediated dedifferentiation of lung carcinoma cells into cancer stem cells
Cancer stem cells are a small population of resistant cells inhabiting tumors.
Although comprising only about 3% of the tumor mass, these cells were demonstrated to organize tumorigenesis and mediate therapy resistance and tumor relapse.
Researchers from Coimbrai in Portugal have shown that stress conditions activated non-malignant stromal fibroblasts, which leads to an increase in Interleukin-6 and Activin-A levels in the tumor microenvironment, which in turn drive tumor cells to formation of cancer stem cells.
By scavenging these cytokines and blocking communication pathways it may be possible to use these mechanisms for potential therapeutic targets against cancer progression!
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29947-w
September | The importance of a cytokine network in the acute phase of sepsis
Sepsis remains a major cause of death. Cytokines interact closely with each other and play a crucial role in the progression of sepsis. Researchers from Osaka focused on the associations of a cytokine network with prognosis and disease severities in sepsis.
Their study included 31 patients with sepsis and 13 healthy controls.
Blood levels of Interleukin-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and many others cytokines were measured.
An interesting finding was that the cytokine network of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-10 could play a pivotal role in the acute phase of sepsis.
This study also indicates that endothelial cell injury might play a role in forming the cytokine network composed of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 throughout the acute phase of sepsis.
Source: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32275-8
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